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B y the end of the twentieth century, per capita income in the United States was more than 50 times higher than per capita income in Ethiopia and Tanzania. Dispersion between the ninety-fifth and fifth percentiles of countries was more than a factor of 32. What explains these profound differences in incomes across countries? 1 This paper returns to two old(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the third cause of cancer-related death. Fibrogenesis is an active process characterized by the production of several proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. It involves the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) which accumulate at the site of injury and are the main(More)
This paper contributes an estimation framework to measure both technological and linkage externalities from foreign direct investment (FDI). Empirical research dealt mainly with intra-industry spillovers from FDI with restrictive treatment of inter-industry effects until recently. However, as optimal organization of the multinational corporation (MNC)(More)
Liver cirrhosis is characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix components, including hyaluronan (HA). In addition, cirrhosis is considered a pre-neoplastic disease for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Altered HA biosynthesis is associated with cancer progression but its role in HCC is unknown. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU), an orally(More)
Proteins rich in sulfhydryl groups, such as metallothionein, are present in several strains of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. Metallothionein-like protein concentrations ranged from 5.1 to 13.2 pmol/mg protein depending on the parasite strain and growth phase. Nifurtimox and benznidazole, used in the treatment of(More)
Diverse strains of the marine planktonic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. show consistent differences in their susceptibility to predation. We used mutants of Sargasso Sea strain WH8102 (clade III) to test the hypothesis that cell surface proteins play a role in defence against predation by protists. Predation rates by the heterotrophic dinoflagellate(More)
Reprimo (RPRM), a downstream effector of p53-induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M, has been proposed as a putative tumor suppressor gene (TSG) and as a potential biomarker for non-invasive detection of gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the epigenetic silencing of RPRM gene by promoter methylation and its tumor suppressor function in GC(More)
How do trade liberalizations a¤ect relative factor prices and to what extent do they cause factors to reallocate across sectors? We …rst present a general accounting framework that nests a wide range of models that have been used to study the link between globalization and factor prices and from which we obtain two su¢ cient statistics that determine factor(More)
respectively. The views expressed in this document are the authors' and do not necessarily reflect those of the Inter-American Development Bank. The authors would like to thank Josefina Posadas for her invaluable research assistance, and José Luis Machinea, Andrew Powell, Andrés Rodríguez Clare and conference participants at the 2001 LACEA Regional(More)