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Early inductive signals within the embryonic mammalian forebrain establish two major germinal regions along the dorsal-ventral axis. The dorsal germinal zone eventually forms the cerebral cortex while the ventral ganglionic eminence primarily forms the striatum and globus pallidus. The mechanisms leading to patterning of specific forebrain structures from(More)
Binding of integrins to ligands provides anchorage and signals for the cell, making them prime candidates for mechanosensing molecules. How force regulates integrin-ligand dissociation is unclear. We used atomic force microscopy to measure the force-dependent lifetimes of single bonds between a fibronectin fragment and an integrin alpha(5)beta(1)-Fc fusion(More)
Mechanical interactions between a cell and its environment regulate migration, contractility, gene expression, and cell fate. We integrated micropatterned substrates to engineer adhesive area and a hydrodynamic assay to analyze fibroblast adhesion strengthening on fibronectin. Independently of cell spreading, integrin binding and focal adhesion assembly(More)
Promotion of repair and regeneration following traumatic brain injury remains a challenging clinical problem. While significant efforts have been made to reduce inhibitory extracellular matrix expression following central nervous system injury, much less attention has been given to the role of endogenous reparative matrix proteins, such as fibronectin.(More)
Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that(More)
Hydrogels, highly hydrated cross-linked polymer networks, have emerged as powerful synthetic analogues of extracellular matrices for basic cell studies as well as promising biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications. [1] A critical advantage of these artificial matrices over natural networks is that bioactive functionalities, such as cell adhesive(More)
Previous studies have shown that antler mineral composition reflects diet. Thus, management involving diet can influence both the mineral composition and mechanical properties of antlers. However, it is not known if reducing population density, which increases availability of food, can compensate mineral deficiencies arising from lack of minerals in plants(More)
Mathematical models of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission originated in the early twentieth century to provide insights into how to most effectively combat malaria. The foundations of the Ross-Macdonald theory were established by 1970. Since then, there has been a growing interest in reducing the public health burden of mosquito-borne pathogens and an(More)
Human movement plays a key role in economies and development, the delivery of services, and the spread of infectious diseases. However, it remains poorly quantified partly because reliable data are often lacking, particularly for low-income countries. The most widely available are migration data from human population censuses, which provide valuable(More)
Focal adhesions mediate force transfer between ECM-integrin complexes and the cytoskeleton. Although vinculin has been implicated in force transmission, few direct measurements have been made, and there is little mechanistic insight. Using vinculin-null cells expressing vinculin mutants, we demonstrate that vinculin is not required for transmission of(More)