Andres Gutierrez

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evolutionary analysis: robotically-simulated vertebrates in a predator-prey ecology. Abstract—To test adaptation hypotheses about the evolution of animals, we need information about the behavior of phenotypically-variable individuals in a specific environment. To model behavior of ancient fish-like vertebrates, we previously combined evolutionary robotics(More)
Immune recognition of foreign proteins by T cells hinges on the formation of a ternary complex sandwiching a constituent peptide of the protein between a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule and a T cell receptor (TCR). Viruses have evolved means of "camouflaging" themselves, avoiding immune recognition by reducing the MHC and/or TCR binding of(More)
A novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza strain emerged in China in April 2013. Since its re-emergence in October–November 2013, the number of reported cases has accelerated; more than 220 laboratory-confirmed cases and 112 deaths (case fatality rate of 20–30%) have been reported. The resurgence of H7N9 has re-emphasized the importance of making faster and more(More)
BACKGROUND Most of the Leishmania genome is reported to be constitutively expressed during the life cycle of the parasite, with a few regulated genes. Inter-species comparative transcriptomics evidenced a low number of species-specific differences related to differentially distributed genes or the differential regulation of conserved genes. It is of(More)
High strain sequence variability, interference with innate immune mechanisms, and epitope deletion are all examples of strategies that pathogens have evolved to subvert host defenses. To this list we would add another strategy: immune camouflage. Pathogens whose epitope sequences are cross-conserved with multiple human proteins at the TCR-facing residues(More)
The pncA gene codes the pyrazinamidase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which converts pyrazinamide to ammonia and pyrazinoic-acid, the active antituberculous compound. Pyrazinamidase mutations are associated to pyrazinamide-resistant phenotype, however how mutations affect the structure of the pyrazinamidase, and how structural changes affect the enzymatic(More)
Avian-origin H7N9 influenza is a novel influenza A virus (IAV) that emerged in humans in China in 2013. Using immunoinformatics tools, we identified several H7N9 T cell epitopes with T cell receptor (TCR)-facing residues identical to those of multiple epitopes from human proteins. We hypothesized that host tolerance to these peptides may impair T helper(More)
Despite years of research, vaccines against HIV and HCV are not yet available, due largely to effective viral immunoevasive mechanisms. A novel escape mechanism observed in viruses that cause chronic infection is suppression of viral-specific effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells by stimulating regulatory T cells (Tregs) educated on host sequences during(More)