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The concept of personality implies individual differences in behavior and physiology that show some degree of repeatability/consistency over time and across contexts. Most studies of animal personality, particularly studies of individuals' variation in physiological mechanisms, have been conducted on selected individuals in controlled conditions. We(More)
Olfactory discrimination of amino acids was investigated in brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus). Based on the magnitude of the observed food search activity of catfish conditioned to single amino acids, the tested compounds were classified as being detected by the catfish as equal to, similar to, or different from the conditioned stimulus. L-Proline(More)
To investigate the dynamics of the potato-Potato virus Y (PVY) compatible interaction in relation to salicylic acid-controlled pathways we performed experiments using non-transgenic potato cv. Désirée, transgenic NahG-Désirée, cv. Igor and PVY(NTN), the most aggressive strain of PVY. The importance of salicylic acid in viral multiplication and symptom(More)
Detection and quantification of plant pathogens in the presence of inhibitory substances can be a challenge especially with plant and environmental samples. Real-time quantitative PCR has enabled high-throughput detection and quantification of pathogens; however, its quantitative use is linked to standardized reference materials, and its sensitivity to(More)
BACKGROUND Phytoplasmas are bacteria without cell walls from the class Mollicutes. They are obligate intracellular plant pathogens which cause diseases in hundreds of economically important plants including the grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Knowledge of their biology and the mechanisms of their interactions with hosts is largely unknown because they are(More)
Extreme selective environments are commonly believed to funnel evolution toward a few predictable outcomes. Caves are well-known extreme environments with characteristically adapted faunas that are similar in appearance, physiology, and behavior all over the world, even if not closely related. Morphological diversity between closely related cave species has(More)
BACKGROUND Different immunotherapy approaches for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases are being developed and tested in clinical studies worldwide. Their resulting complex experimental data should be properly evaluated, therefore reliable normal healthy control baseline values are indispensable. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To assess intra-(More)
Due to the great variety of preprocessing tools in two-channel expression microarray data analysis it is difficult to choose the most appropriate one for a given experimental setup. In our study, two independent two-channel inhouse microarray experiments as well as a publicly available dataset were used to investigate the influence of the selection of(More)
Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major pathogen that causes substantial economic losses in worldwide potato production. Different potato cultivars differ in resistance to PVY, from severe susceptibility, through tolerance, to complete resistance. The aim of this study was to better define the mechanisms underlying tolerant responses of potato to infection by the(More)