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The concept of personality implies individual differences in behavior and physiology that show some degree of repeatability/consistency over time and across contexts. Most studies of animal personality, particularly studies of individuals' variation in physiological mechanisms, have been conducted on selected individuals in controlled conditions. We(More)
Olfactory discrimination of amino acids was investigated in brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus). Based on the magnitude of the observed food search activity of catfish conditioned to single amino acids, the tested compounds were classified as being detected by the catfish as equal to, similar to, or different from the conditioned stimulus. L-Proline(More)
To investigate the dynamics of the potato-Potato virus Y (PVY) compatible interaction in relation to salicylic acid-controlled pathways we performed experiments using non-transgenic potato cv. Désirée, transgenic NahG-Désirée, cv. Igor and PVY(NTN), the most aggressive strain of PVY. The importance of salicylic acid in viral multiplication and symptom(More)
Detection and quantification of plant pathogens in the presence of inhibitory substances can be a challenge especially with plant and environmental samples. Real-time quantitative PCR has enabled high-throughput detection and quantification of pathogens; however, its quantitative use is linked to standardized reference materials, and its sensitivity to(More)
BACKGROUND Phytoplasmas are bacteria without cell walls from the class Mollicutes. They are obligate intracellular plant pathogens which cause diseases in hundreds of economically important plants including the grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Knowledge of their biology and the mechanisms of their interactions with hosts is largely unknown because they are(More)
Different kinds of data are used in teaching statistics. In applied statistics courses we usually use real life data related to the main subject matter of our students. Such data are interesting for students and motivate final interpretation of statistical results. For demonstration of statistical concepts, computer simulated data with known statistical(More)
We derive the probability density of the ratio of components of the bivariate normal distribution with arbitrary parameters. The density is a product of two factors, the first is a Cauchy density, the second a very complicated function. We show that the distribution under study does not possess an expected value or other moments of higher order. Our(More)
In nature the aerial trace of pheromone used by male moths to find a female appears as a train of discontinuous pulses separated by gaps among a complex odorant background constituted of plant volatiles. We investigated the effect of such background odor on behavior and coding of temporal parameters of pheromone pulse trains in the pheromone olfactory(More)
Extreme selective environments are commonly believed to funnel evolution toward a few predictable outcomes. Caves are well-known extreme environments with characteristically adapted faunas that are similar in appearance, physiology, and behavior all over the world, even if not closely related. Morphological diversity between closely related cave species has(More)