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Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) arise from diverse developmental origins. Regional distribution of vascular diseases may, in part, be attributed to this inherent heterogeneity in SMC lineage. Therefore, systems for generating human SMC subtypes of distinct embryonic origins would represent useful platforms for studying the influence of SMC lineage on(More)
In recent years major progress has been made in understanding the role of transcription factors in the development of the endocrine pancreas in the mouse. Here we describe how a number of these transcription factors play a role in maintaining the differentiated phenotype of the beta cell, and in the mechanisms that allow the beta cell to adapt to changing(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells represent a possible source of islet tissue for the treatment of diabetes. Achieving this goal will require a detailed understanding of how the transcription factor cascade initiated by the homeodomain transcription factor Pdx1 culminates in pancreatic beta-cell development. Here we describe a genetic approach that enables fine(More)
Heterogeneity of embryological origins is a hallmark of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and may influence the development of vascular disease. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into developmental origin-specific SMC subtypes remains elusive. Here we describe a chemically defined protocol in which hPSCs were initially induced to(More)
Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) and Epiblast Stem Cells (EpiSCs) are the in vitro representatives of naïve and primed pluripotency, respectively. It is currently unclear how their epigenomes underpin the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of these distinct pluripotent states. Here, we performed a genome-wide comparison of DNA methylation between ESCs and(More)
The transcription factor brachyury (T, BRA) is one of the first markers of gastrulation and lineage specification in vertebrates. Despite its wide use and importance in stem cell and developmental biology, its functional genomic targets in human cells are largely unknown. Here, we use differentiating human embryonic stem cells to study the role of BRA in(More)
There is a compelling need to develop novel therapies for diabetes mellitus. Recent successes in the transplantation of islets of Langerhans are seen as a major breakthrough. However, there is huge disparity between potential recipients and the availability of donor tissue. Human embryonic stem cells induced to form pancreatic beta cells could provide a(More)
Neurogenin 3 (ngn3) is a basic helix loop helix transcription factor that is transiently expressed in the developing mouse pancreas with peak expression around E15. In mice lacking the ngn3 gene the endocrine cells of the pancreas fail to develop suggesting that the ngn3-positive cell may represent a progenitor cell for the endocrine pancreas. In order to(More)
It is imperative to unveil the full range of differentiated cell types into which human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can develop. The need is twofold: it will delimit the therapeutic utility of these stem cells and is necessary to place their position accurately in the developmental hierarchy of lineage potential. Accumulated evidence suggested that hPSC(More)
In order to purify and characterize nestin-positive cells in the developing pancreas a transgenic mouse was generated, in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was driven by the nestin second intronic enhancer and upstream promoter. In keeping with previous studies on the distribution of nestin, EGFP was expressed in the developing embryo in(More)