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We apply a look-up table technique to calibrate both position and orientation readings from a magnetic tracker for use in virtual environments within a defined working volume. In a test volume of 2.4 cubic meters, the method reduced the tracker's average position error by 79% and its average orientation error by 40%. We test the correction table against the(More)
We report the results of a randomized, controlled trial to compare the accuracy of standard ultrasound-guided needle biopsy to biopsies performed using a 3D Augmented Reality (AR) guidance system. Fifty core biopsies of breast phantoms were conducted by a board-certified radiologist, with each set of five biopsies randomly assigned to one of the methods.(More)
We built a video see-through head-mounted display with zero eye offset from commercial components and a mount fabricated via rapid prototyping. The orthoscopic HMD's layout was created and optimized with a software simulator. We describe simulator and HMD design, we show the HMD in use and demonstrate zero parallax.
We present a real-time stereoscopic video-see-through augmented reality (AR) system applied to the medical procedure known as ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the breast. The AR system was used by a physician during procedures on breast models and during non-invasive examinations of human subjects. The system merges rendered live ultrasound data and(More)
We present the design and a prototype implementation of a three-dimensional visualization system to assist with laparoscopic surgical procedures. The system uses 3D visualization, depth extraction from laparoscopic images, and six degree-of-freedom head and laparoscope tracking to display a merged real and synthetic image in the surgeon's video-see-through(More)
Augmented reality systems with see-through head-mounted displays have been used primarily for applications that are possible with today's computational capabilities. We explore possibilities for a particular application---in-place, real-time 3D ultrasound visualization---without concern for such limitations. The question is not "How well could we currently(More)
This work focuses on the simulation of mechanical contact between nonlinearly elastic objects such as the components of the human body. The computation of the reaction forces that actonthecontactsurfaces(contact forces) is the key for designing a reliable contact handling algorithm. In traditional methods, contact forces are often defined as discontinuous(More)
Figure 1: Left to right: A) Without lighting control, virtual imagery shown through a conventional optical see-through display appears transparent and low contrast in a normally lit room. B-C) Remote user appears inside local environment from different tracked viewing positions with projector-based lighting control. D) Remote user and his environment(More)
Accurate registration between real and virtual objects is crucial for augmented reality applications. Existing tracking methods are individually inadequate: magnetic trackers are inaccurate, mechanical trackers are cumbersome, and vision-based trackers are computationally problematic. We present a hybrid tracking method that combines the accuracy of(More)