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Excessive inflammatory responses can emerge as a potential danger for organisms' health. Physiological balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes constitutes an important feature of responses against harmful events. Here, we show that cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) mediate intrinsic protective signals that counteract proinflammatory responses.(More)
The effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists on smooth muscle resting membrane potentials and on membrane potentials following electrical neuronal stimulation in a myenteric neuron/smooth muscle preparation of wild-type and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)-deficient mice were investigated in vitro. Double staining for CB1 and nitric oxide(More)
The endocannabinoid (EC) system mediates protection against intestinal inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of blocking EC degradation or cellular reuptake in experimental colitis in mice. Mice were treated with trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid in presence and absence of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) blocker URB597, the EC membrane(More)
BACKGROUND Herbal preparations like STW 5 (Iberogast) are widely used drugs in the treatment of dyspepsia and motility-related disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. STW 5 is a phytotherapeutic agent consisting of a fixed mixture of 9 individual plant extracts. The electrophysiological mechanisms of action of STW 5 remain obscure. AIM The aim of the(More)
The opioid and cannabinoid systems play a crucial role in multiple physiological processes in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Selective opioid as well as cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists exert a potent inhibitory action on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and pain. In this study, we examined (in vitro and in vivo) whether PR-38(More)
Cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor activation affects gastrointestinal propulsion in vivo. It was our aim to further characterize the involved myenteric mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. In CB1(-/-) mice and wild-type littermates we performed in vivo transit experiments by charcoal feeding and in vitro electrophysiological recordings in mouse small intestinal(More)
The enteric neural network in the proximal murine colon shows a regularly occurring hypoganglionic region, which is here characterized by using anatomical and electrophysiological techniques. Staining with NADPH diaphorase, methylene blue, and cuprolinic blue in standard whole mounts and three-dimensional gut preparations of the murine proximal colon(More)
In the human colon, vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is overexpressed both in afferent nerve terminals and in epithelial cells during inflammation. In the past years, pharmacological experiments using TRPV1 agonists and antagonists revealed that TRPV1 receptors may play proinflammatory and protective roles in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we applied a genetic(More)
The enteric nervous system contains excitatory and inhibitory neurons, which control contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle cells as well as gastrointestinal motor activity. Little is known about the exact cellular mechanisms of neuronal signal transduction to smooth muscle cells in the gut. Here we generate a c-Kit(CreERT2) knock-in allele to target a(More)
Cannabinoid-1 (CB(1)) receptors on myenteric neurons are involved in the regulation of intestinal motility. Our aim was to investigate CB(1) receptor involvement in ascending neurotransmission in mouse colon and to characterize the involved structures by functional and morphological means. Presence of the CB(1) receptor was investigated by RT-PCR, and(More)