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The "chicken-or-egg" dilemma dictates that archaic tRNAs be aminoacylated by ribozymic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, rAARSs, with protein synthetases (pAARSs) emerging later and, strikingly in two versions. However, the distribution of these two versions among the codons also suggests their involvement in development of the genetic code. Here we propose a(More)
Analysis of the updated compilation of more than 8,000 tRNA gene sequences confirmed our previously reported finding that in pairs of consensus tRNAs with complementary anticodons, their second bases in the acceptor stems are also complementary. This dual complementarity points to the following: (1) the operational code embodied in the acceptor stem, and(More)
Molecular epidemiologists usually consider the spectrum of p53 mutations found in human tumors to be a signature of the corresponding environmental carcinogen(s). In lung cancer, this signature is the spectrum of G --> T transversions, presumably induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from cigarette smoke. What complicates the situation, however,(More)
Pharmacogenomics strives to explain the interindividual variability in response to drugs due to genetic variation. Although technological advances have provided us with relatively easy and cheap methods for genotyping, promises about personalised medicine have not yet met our high expectations. Successful results that have been achieved within the field of(More)
The genetic code is brought into action by 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes are evenly divided into two classes (I and II) that recognize tRNAs from the minor and major groove sides of the acceptor stem, respectively. We have reported recently that: (1) ribozymic precursors of the synthetases seem to have used the same two sterically mirror(More)
Pharmacogenetics aims to elucidate the genetic factors underlying the individual's response to pharmacotherapy. Coupled with the recent (and ongoing) progress in high-throughput genotyping, sequencing and other genomic technologies, pharmacogenetics is rapidly transforming into pharmacogenomics, while pursuing the primary goals of identifying and studying(More)
Synthesis of proteins is based on the genetic code - a nearly universal assignment of codons to amino acids (aas). A major challenge to the understanding of the origins of this assignment is the archetypal "key-lock vs. frozen accident" dilemma. Here we re-examine this dilemma in light of 1) the fundamental veto on "foresight evolution", 2) modular(More)
There is a critical need for data-mining methods that can identify SNPs that predict among individual variation in a phenotype of interest and reverse-engineer the biological network of relationships between SNPs, phenotypes, and other factors. This problem is both challenging and important in light of the large number of SNPs in many genes of interest and(More)
MOTIVATION The wealth of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data within candidate genes and anticipated across the genome poses enormous analytical problems for studies of genotype-to-phenotype relationships, and modern data mining methods may be particularly well suited to meet the swelling challenges. In this paper, we introduce the method of Belief(More)
Response to pharmacotherapy can be highly variable amongst individuals. Pharmacogenomics may explain the interindividual variability in drug response due to genetic variation. However, besides genetics, many other factors can play a role in the response to pharmacotherapy, including disease severity, co-morbidity, environmental factors, therapy adherence(More)