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In modern clinical neuro-oncology, histopathological diagnosis affects therapeutic decisions and prognostic estimation more than any other variable. Among high-grade gliomas, histologically classic glioblastomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas follow markedly different clinical courses. Unfortunately, many malignant gliomas are diagnostically challenging;(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases. To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin(More)
Plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) is a typical feature of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). About 10% of patients with NF1 develop malignant peripheral nerve-sheath tumours (MPNST), usually arising from PNF, and this is the major cause of poor survival. A better prognosis can be achieved if the tumours are diagnosed at an early stage. Our objective was to establish MRI(More)
Medulloblastoma is an aggressively growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and shows tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who(More)
In the hippocampus of patients with therapy-refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, glial cells of area CA1 might be less able to take up potassium ions via barium-sensitive inwardly rectifying and voltage-independent potassium channels. Using ion-selective microelectrodes we investigated the effects of barium on rises in [K+]o induced by repetitive alvear(More)
Many patients with malignant gliomas do not respond to alkylating agent chemotherapy. Alkylator resistance of glioma cells is mainly mediated by the DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). Epigenetic silencing of the MGMT gene by promoter methylation in glioma cells compromises this DNA repair mechanism and increases(More)
Traumatic brain injury is followed by increased extracellular glutamate concentration. Uptake of glutamate is mainly mediated by the glial glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1. Extent and distribution of GLAST and GLT-1 were studied in a rat model of controlled cortical impact injury (CCII). Western Blot analysis revealed lowest levels of GLAST and GLT-1(More)
Brain tumors pose a particular challenge to molecular oncology. Many different tumor entities develop in the nervous system and some of them appear to follow distinct pathogenic routes. Molecular genetic alterations have increasingly been reported in nervous system neoplasms. However, a considerable number of affected genes remain to be identified. We(More)
We propose a histopathological classification system for hippocampal cell loss in patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE). One hundred and seventy-eight surgically resected specimens were microscopically examined with respect to neuronal cell loss in hippocampal subfields CA1-CA4 and dentate gyrus. Five distinct patterns were(More)
Deletions on the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p) and the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q) are molecular hallmark lesions of oligodendroglial tumors. Ever since oligodendroglial tumors with 1p and 19q deletions were shown to respond to chemotherapy, neuropathologists have been facing increasing requests for such molecular analysis. Therefore, there is(More)