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Conventional immunohistochemistry provides little evidence for the synaptic localization of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors, suggesting that their epitopes are not readily accessible in situ. Here, we have adapted antigen retrieval procedures based on microwave irradiation to enhance the immunohistochemical staining of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A(More)
Changes in the expression of the NMDA receptor subunits (NRs) NR2A, 2B, and 2C were investigated in histo blots of the developing rat brain with subunit-specific antisera. At birth, the NR2B subunit was detected almost ubiquitously, the NR2A subunit staining was faint and restricted to the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and striatum, and no NR2C subunit(More)
Erythropoietin (Epo) is upregulated by hypoxia and provides protection against apoptosis of erythroid progenitors in bone marrow and brain neurons. Here we show in the adult mouse retina that acute hypoxia dose-dependently stimulates expression of Epo, fibroblast growth factor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor via hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha(More)
Human retinal dystrophies and degenerations and light-induced retinal degenerations in animal models are sharing an important feature: visual cell death by apoptosis. Studying apoptosis may thus provide an important handle to understand mechanisms of cell death and to develop potential rescue strategies for blinding retinal diseases. Apoptosis is the(More)
Excessive light can cause retinal degeneration and may be an environmental cofactor accelerating retinal dystrophies and age-related diseases. In rodent models, the light damage susceptibility (LDS) of the retina is determined genetically. In two mouse strains, with different degrees of LDS, a Leu450Met variation in the pigment epithelial protein RPE65 was(More)
PURPOSE To identify and localize the expression of multispecific organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps/OATPs) in the ciliary body epithelium and to investigate their possible involvement in the transport of the antiglaucoma agent unoprostone. METHODS Oatps/OATPs were detected by immunoblot analysis and by immunofluorescence microscopy in(More)
Excessive phototransduction signaling is thought to be involved in light-induced and inherited retinal degeneration. Using knockout mice with defects in rhodopsin shut-off and transducin signaling, we show that two different pathways of photoreceptor-cell apoptosis are induced by light. Bright light induces apoptosis that is independent of transducin and(More)
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the most serious form of the autosomal recessive childhood-onset retinal dystrophies. Mutations in the gene encoding RPE65, a protein vital for regeneration of the visual pigment rhodopsin in the retinal pigment epithelium, account for 10-15% of LCA cases. Whereas previous studies of RPE65 deficiency in both animal models(More)
BACKGROUND RPE65 is specifically expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium and is essential for the recycling of 11-cis-retinal, the chromophore of rod and cone opsins. In humans, mutations in RPE65 lead to Leber congenital amaurosis or early-onset retinal dystrophy, a severe form of retinitis pigmentosa. The proof of feasibility of gene therapy for RPE65(More)
PURPOSE Acute white-light damage to rods depends on the amount of rhodopsin available for bleaching during light exposure. Bleached rhodopsin is metabolically regenerated through the visual cycle involving the pigment epithelium, or photochemically by deep blue light through photoreversal of bleaching. Because photoreversal is faster than metabolic(More)