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Conventional immunohistochemistry provides little evidence for the synaptic localization of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors, suggesting that their epitopes are not readily accessible in situ. Here, we have adapted antigen retrieval procedures based on microwave irradiation to enhance the immunohistochemical staining of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A(More)
Changes in the expression of the NMDA receptor subunits (NRs) NR2A, 2B, and 2C were investigated in histo blots of the developing rat brain with subunit-specific antisera. At birth, the NR2B subunit was detected almost ubiquitously, the NR2A subunit staining was faint and restricted to the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and striatum, and no NR2C subunit(More)
Human retinal dystrophies and degenerations and light-induced retinal degenerations in animal models are sharing an important feature: visual cell death by apoptosis. Studying apoptosis may thus provide an important handle to understand mechanisms of cell death and to develop potential rescue strategies for blinding retinal diseases. Apoptosis is the(More)
Excessive phototransduction signaling is thought to be involved in light-induced and inherited retinal degeneration. Using knockout mice with defects in rhodopsin shut-off and transducin signaling, we show that two different pathways of photoreceptor-cell apoptosis are induced by light. Bright light induces apoptosis that is independent of transducin and(More)
Excessive light can cause retinal degeneration and may be an environmental cofactor accelerating retinal dystrophies and age-related diseases. In rodent models, the light damage susceptibility (LDS) of the retina is determined genetically. In two mouse strains, with different degrees of LDS, a Leu450Met variation in the pigment epithelial protein RPE65 was(More)
PURPOSE Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) allows cross-sectional visualization of retinal structures in vivo. Here, the authors report the efficacy of a commercially available SD-OCT device to study mouse models of retinal degeneration. METHODS C57BL/6 and BALB/c wild-type mice and three different mouse models of hereditary retinal(More)
Scanning-laser ophthalmoscopy is a technique for confocal imaging of the eye in vivo. The use of lasers of different wavelengths allows to obtain information about specific tissues and layers due to their reflection and transmission characteristics. In addition, fluorescent dyes excitable in the blue and infrared range offer a unique access to the vascular(More)
PURPOSE Acute white-light damage to rods depends on the amount of rhodopsin available for bleaching during light exposure. Bleached rhodopsin is metabolically regenerated through the visual cycle involving the pigment epithelium, or photochemically by deep blue light through photoreversal of bleaching. Because photoreversal is faster than metabolic(More)
BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method of retinal in vivo imaging. In this study, we assessed the potential of OCT to yield histology-analogue sections in mouse models of retinal degeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We achieved to adapt a commercial 3(rd) generation OCT system to obtain and quantify high-resolution(More)
A sequence variation in the pigment epithelial protein RPE65 has been shown to correlate with RPE65 protein levels, rhodopsin regeneration kinetics and light damage susceptibility in different mouse strains. Here, we tested whether such a correlation can also be found in rats. We examined four rat strains for RPE65 protein levels and the Rpe65 gene(More)