Learn More
Conventional immunohistochemistry provides little evidence for the synaptic localization of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors, suggesting that their epitopes are not readily accessible in situ. Here, we have adapted antigen retrieval procedures based on microwave irradiation to enhance the immunohistochemical staining of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A(More)
Changes in the expression of the NMDA receptor subunits (NRs) NR2A, 2B, and 2C were investigated in histo blots of the developing rat brain with subunit-specific antisera. At birth, the NR2B subunit was detected almost ubiquitously, the NR2A subunit staining was faint and restricted to the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and striatum, and no NR2C subunit(More)
The EU-funded project IDEA aimed to evaluate (a) what parameters and endpoints allow the detection of endocrine-mediated developmental and reproductive effects of (xeno)estrogens in life cycle- and life stage-specific toxicity tests with the zebrafish Danio rerio, a small laboratory fish used in many ecotoxicity test guidelines, and (b) whether substances(More)
Human retinal dystrophies and degenerations and light-induced retinal degenerations in animal models are sharing an important feature: visual cell death by apoptosis. Studying apoptosis may thus provide an important handle to understand mechanisms of cell death and to develop potential rescue strategies for blinding retinal diseases. Apoptosis is the(More)
Excessive phototransduction signaling is thought to be involved in light-induced and inherited retinal degeneration. Using knockout mice with defects in rhodopsin shut-off and transducin signaling, we show that two different pathways of photoreceptor-cell apoptosis are induced by light. Bright light induces apoptosis that is independent of transducin and(More)
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the most serious form of the autosomal recessive childhood-onset retinal dystrophies. Mutations in the gene encoding RPE65, a protein vital for regeneration of the visual pigment rhodopsin in the retinal pigment epithelium, account for 10-15% of LCA cases. Whereas previous studies of RPE65 deficiency in both animal models(More)
Excessive light can cause retinal degeneration and may be an environmental cofactor accelerating retinal dystrophies and age-related diseases. In rodent models, the light damage susceptibility (LDS) of the retina is determined genetically. In two mouse strains, with different degrees of LDS, a Leu450Met variation in the pigment epithelial protein RPE65 was(More)
Scanning-laser ophthalmoscopy is a technique for confocal imaging of the eye in vivo. The use of lasers of different wavelengths allows to obtain information about specific tissues and layers due to their reflection and transmission characteristics. In addition, fluorescent dyes excitable in the blue and infrared range offer a unique access to the vascular(More)
PURPOSE Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) allows cross-sectional visualization of retinal structures in vivo. Here, the authors report the efficacy of a commercially available SD-OCT device to study mouse models of retinal degeneration. METHODS C57BL/6 and BALB/c wild-type mice and three different mouse models of hereditary retinal(More)
To investigate the developmental and regional expression of the NR1-subunit of the NMDA-receptor on the protein level, two polyclonal antisera [NR1(N) and NR1(C)] were raised against fusion proteins derived from the N- and C-terminal domain of the NR1-subunit, respectively. In Western blots of rat brain membranes, both antisera specifically recognized a(More)