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BACKGROUND Neuronal cell death after general anesthesia has recently been documented in several immature animal models. Worldwide, volatile anesthetics are used in millions of young children every year during surgical procedures and imaging studies. The possibility of anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity during an uneventful anesthetic in neonates or infants(More)
BACKGROUND Volatile anesthetics, such as isoflurane, are widely used in infants and neonates. Neurodegeneration and neurocognitive impairment after exposure to isoflurane, midazolam, and nitrous oxide in neonatal rats have raised concerns regarding the safety of pediatric anesthesia. In neonatal mice, prolonged isoflurane exposure triggers hypoglycemia,(More)
Anesthetic drugs cause brain cell death and long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in neonatal rats. Recently, human data also suggest that anesthesia early in life may cause cognitive impairment. The connection between cell death and neurocognitive decline is uncertain. It is conceivable that mechanisms other than brain cell death contribute to(More)
PURPOSE   Aberrant plastic changes among adult-generated hippocampal dentate granule cells are hypothesized to contribute to the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. Changes include formation of basal dendrites projecting into the dentate hilus. Innervation of these processes by granule cell mossy fiber axons leads to the creation of recurrent excitatory(More)
BACKGROUND General anaesthesia facilitates surgical operations and painful interventions in millions of patients every year. Recent observations of anaesthetic-induced neuronal cell death in newborn animals have raised substantial concerns for young children undergoing anaesthesia. However, it remains unclear why some brain regions are more affected than(More)
The functional impact of adult-generated granule cells in the epileptic brain is unclear, with data supporting both protective and maladaptive roles. These conflicting findings could be explained if new granule cells integrate heterogeneously, with some cells taking neutral or adaptive roles and others contributing to recurrent circuitry supporting(More)
OBJECTIVE Anesthetics have been linked to widespread neuronal cell death in neonatal animals. Epidemiological human studies have associated early childhood anesthesia with long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities, raising substantial concerns that anesthetics may cause similar cell death in young children. However, key aspects of the phenomenon remain(More)
During the development of epilepsy in adult animals, newly generated granule cells integrate abnormally into the hippocampus. These new cells migrate to ectopic locations in the hilus, develop aberrant basal dendrites, contribute to mossy fiber sprouting, and exhibit changes in apical dendrite structure and dendritic spine number. Mature granule cells do(More)
All routinely utilized sedatives and anesthetics have been found neurotoxic in a wide variety of animal species, including non-human primates. Neurotoxic effects observed in animals include histologic evidence for apoptotic neuronal cell death and subsequent learning and memory impairment. Several cohort studies in neonates with significant comorbidities(More)