Andreas W Loepke

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BACKGROUND Volatile anesthetics facilitate surgical procedures and imaging studies in millions of children every year. Neuronal cell death after prolonged exposure to isoflurane in developing animals has raised serious concerns regarding its safe use in children. Although sevoflurane and desflurane are becoming more popular for pediatric anesthesia, their(More)
BACKGROUND Neuronal cell death after general anesthesia has recently been documented in several immature animal models. Worldwide, volatile anesthetics are used in millions of young children every year during surgical procedures and imaging studies. The possibility of anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity during an uneventful anesthetic in neonates or infants(More)
Altered granule cell>>CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic connectivity may contribute to the development of limbic epilepsy. To explore this possibility, granule cell giant mossy fiber bouton plasticity was examined in the kindling and pilocarpine models of epilepsy using green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic mice. These studies revealed significant(More)
BACKGROUND Volatile anesthetics, such as isoflurane, are widely used in infants and neonates. Neurodegeneration and neurocognitive impairment after exposure to isoflurane, midazolam, and nitrous oxide in neonatal rats have raised concerns regarding the safety of pediatric anesthesia. In neonatal mice, prolonged isoflurane exposure triggers hypoglycemia,(More)
The functional impact of adult-generated granule cells in the epileptic brain is unclear, with data supporting both protective and maladaptive roles. These conflicting findings could be explained if new granule cells integrate heterogeneously, with some cells taking neutral or adaptive roles and others contributing to recurrent circuitry supporting(More)
Although previously considered entirely reversible, general anaesthesia is now being viewed as a potentially significant risk to cognitive performance at both extremes of age. A large body of preclinical as well as some retrospective clinical evidence suggest that exposure to general anaesthesia could be detrimental to cognitive development in young(More)
Despite our insufficient understanding of the exact molecular mechanisms of general anesthetics and sedatives, every year millions of children are treated with these drugs in a seemingly safe manner. However, increasing evidence particularly from animal studies has suggested the possibility for deleterious effects in pediatric patients. All currently(More)
BACKGROUND Despite improvements in neonatal heart surgery, neurologic complications continue to occur from low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (LF-CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Desflurane confers neuroprotection against ischemia at normothermia and for DHCA. This study compared neurologic outcome of a desflurane-based with a(More)
All routinely utilized sedatives and anesthetics have been found neurotoxic in a wide variety of animal species, including non-human primates. Neurotoxic effects observed in animals include histologic evidence for apoptotic neuronal cell death and subsequent learning and memory impairment. Several cohort studies in neonates with significant comorbidities(More)
UNLABELLED A longer acting local anesthetic such as ropivacaine may offer advantages over lidocaine for IV regional anesthesia (IVRA). The objective of this investigation was to determine whether the use of ropivacaine improves the quality and duration of IVRA. In a randomized, double cross-over design, 10 volunteers received lidocaine 0.5% or ropivacaine(More)