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Huntington disease (HD) is an adult onset, neurodegenerative disorder that results from CAG expansion in the HD gene. Recent work has demonstrated testicular degeneration in mouse models of HD and alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in HD patients. Here, we show that HD patients have specific testicular pathology with reduced(More)
Actin filaments are concentrated in specific regions of spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells. In spermatogenic cells they occur in intercellular bridges and in the subacrosomal space. In Sertoli cells they are abundant in ectoplasmic specializations and in regions adjacent to tubulobulbar processes of spermatogenic cells. At all of these sites, the(More)
The mechanism responsible for spermatid translocation in the mammalian seminiferous epithelium was proposed to be the microtubule-based transport of specialized junction plaques (ectoplasmic specializations) that occur in Sertoli cell regions attached to spermatid heads. These plaques each consist of a cistern of endoplasmic reticulum, a layer of actin(More)
OBJECTIVE The attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enteropathogenic E coli and Citrobacter rodentium colonise intestinal tracts, attach to enterocytes, collapse infected cell microvilli and alter numerous host cell processes during infection. Enterocyte alterations result in numerous small molecules being released from(More)
Bundles of microtubules occur adjacent to ectoplasmic specializations (ESs) that line Sertoli cell crypts and support developing spermatids. These microtubules are oriented parallel to the direction of spermatid movement during spermatogenesis. We propose a model in which ESs function as vehicles, and microtubules as tracks, for microtubule-based transport(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by a toxic gain of function in the huntingtin (htt) protein. The contribution of wild-type htt function to the pathogenesis of HD is currently uncertain. To assess the role of wild-type htt in HD, we generated YAC128 mice that do not express wild-type htt (YAC128-/-) but express the(More)
We have developed yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) transgenic mice expressing normal (YAC18) and mutant (YAC46 or YAC72) human huntingtin (htt), in a developmental- and tissue-specific manner, that is identical to endogenous htt. YAC72 mice develop selective degeneration of medium spiny projection neurons in the lateral striatum, similar to what is(More)
We have investigated the arrangement and function of actin filament bundles in Sertoli cell ectoplasmic specializations found adjacent to junctional networks and in areas of adhesion to spermatogenic cells. Tissue was collected, from ground squirrel (Spermophilus spp.) testes, in three ways: seminiferous tubules were fragmented mechanically; segments of(More)
BACKGROUND Podocalyxin is a CD34-related transmembrane protein involved in hematopoietic cell homing, kidney morphogenesis, breast cancer progression, and epithelial cell polarization. Although this sialomucin has been shown to block cell adhesion, the mechanisms involved remain enigmatic. It has, however, been postulated that the adaptor proteins NHERF-1(More)
The prevailing model of the mechanical function of intermediate filaments in cells assumes that these 10 nm diameter filaments make up networks that behave as entropic gels, with individual intermediate filaments never experiencing direct loading in tension. However, recent work has shown that single intermediate filaments and bundles are remarkably(More)