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We present the results of a benchmark study for a convection-driven magnetohydrodynamic dynamo problem in a rotating spherical shell. The solutions are stationary aside from azimuthal drift. One case of non-magnetic convection and two dynamos that differ in the assumptions concerning the inner core are studied. Six groups contributed numerical solutions(More)
Levoglucosan, an important molecular marker for biomass burning, represents an important fraction of the water-soluble organic carbon in atmospheric particles influenced by residential wood burning and wildfires. However, particle phase oxidation processes of levoglucosan by free radicals are not well-known. Hence, detailed kinetic studies on the reactivity(More)
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Global sulfate production plays a key role in aerosol radiative forcing; more than half of this production occurs in clouds. We found that sulfur dioxide oxidation catalyzed by natural transition metal ions is the dominant in-cloud oxidation pathway. The pathway was observed to occur primarily on coarse mineral dust, so the sulfate produced will have a(More)
The most important radicals which need to be considered for the description of chemical conversion processes in tropospheric aqueous systems are the hydroxyl radical (OH), the nitrate radical (NO(3)) and sulphur-containing radicals such as the sulphate radical (SO(4)(-)). For each of the three radicals their generation and their properties are discussed(More)
Direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a plane layer with periodic boundary conditions at Rayleigh numbers up to 10(7) show that flow structures can be objectively classified as large or small scale structures because of a gap in spatial spectra. The typical size of the large scale structures does not always vary monotonically as a(More)
Numerical simulation of rotating convection in plane layers with free slip boundaries show that the convective flows can be classified according to a quantity constructed from the Reynolds, Prandtl, and Ekman numbers. Three different flow regimes appear: laminar flow close to the onset of convection, turbulent flow in which the heat flow approaches the heat(More)
BACKGROUND The pressure drop-flow relations in myocardial bridges and the assessment of vascular heart disease via fractional flow reserve (FFR) have motivated many researchers the last decades. The aim of this study is to simulate several clinical conditions present in myocardial bridges to determine the flow reserve and consequently the clinical relevance(More)
In the Earth's fluid outer core, a dynamo process converts thermal and gravitational energy into magnetic energy. The power needed to sustain the geomagnetic field is set by the ohmic losses (dissipation due to electrical resistance). Recent estimates of ohmic losses cover a wide range, from 0.1 to 3.5 TW, or roughly 0.3-10% of the Earth's surface heat(More)