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The use of many halogenated alkanes such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), chloroform (CHCl3) or iodoform (CHI3), has been banned or severely restricted because of their distinct toxicity. Yet CCl4 continues to provide an important service today as a model substance to elucidate the mechanisms of action of hepatotoxic effects such as fatty degeneration,(More)
Based on epidemiologic observations, the issue of adverse health effects of inhaled ultrafine particles (UFP) is currently under intensive discussion. We therefore examined cardiovascular effects of UFP in a controlled animal exposure on young, healthy WKY rats. Short-term exposure (24 h) to carbon UFPs (38 nm, 180 microg m (-3)), generated by spark(More)
The molecular mechanism of how hepatocytes maintain cholesterol homeostasis has become much more transparent with the discovery of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in recent years. These membrane proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) family of transcription factors. They activate the expression of at(More)
Epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided a strong body of evidence that elevated levels of ambient particulate air pollution (PM) are associated with increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Exacerbations of ischemic and/or arrhythmic cardiac diseases have been linked to PM exposure. At a workshop held at the GSF-(More)
CCl4-induced liver damage was modeled in monolayer cultures of rat primary hepatocytes with a focus on involvement of covalent binding of CCl4 metabolites to cell components and/or peroxidative damage as the cause of injury. (1) Covalent binding of 14C-labeled metabolites was detected in hepatocytes immediately after exposure to CCl4. (2) Low oxygen partial(More)
BACKGROUND Air pollution episodes are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The effect of ultrafine particles (UFPs), when translocated after inhalation, on the microcirculation of extrapulmonary organs remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS In C57BL/6 mice, either carbon black UFPs (1x10(7) and 5x10(7)) or vehicle was(More)
BACKGROUND In nanotoxicology, the exact role of particle shape, in relation to the composition, on the capacity to induce toxicity is largely unknown. We investigated the toxic and immunotoxic effects of silver wires (length: 1.5 - 25 μm; diameter 100 - 160 nm), spherical silver nanoparticles (30 nm) and silver microparticles (<45 μm) on alveolar epithelial(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Numerous herbicides and xenobiotic organic pollutants are detoxified in plants to glutathione conjugates. Following this enzyme catalyzed reaction, xenobiotic GS-conjugates are thought to be compartmentalized in the vacuole of plant cells. In the present study, evidence is presented from experiments with roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to particulate matter is a risk factor for cardiopulmonary disease but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study we sought to investigate the cardiopulmonary responses on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) following inhalation of UfCPs (24 h, 172 mug.m-3), to assess whether compromised animals(More)
Extra and intracellular magnesium is involved in the control of myocardial calcium movements. Here we report on an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration in resting ventricular myocytes due to the withdrawal of extracellular magnesium under the condition of a blocked sodium-dependent calcium elimination. Evidence for an activation of cellular calcium(More)