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The use of many halogenated alkanes such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), chloroform (CHCl3) or iodoform (CHI3), has been banned or severely restricted because of their distinct toxicity. Yet CCl4 continues to provide an important service today as a model substance to elucidate the mechanisms of action of hepatotoxic effects such as fatty degeneration,(More)
CCl4-induced liver damage was modeled in monolayer cultures of rat primary hepatocytes with a focus on involvement of covalent binding of CCl4 metabolites to cell components and/or peroxidative damage as the cause of injury. (1) Covalent binding of 14C-labeled metabolites was detected in hepatocytes immediately after exposure to CCl4. (2) Low oxygen partial(More)
Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats aged 16 ± 4 weeks with histopathological alterations of liver and kidney, exhibited elevated Cu levels in liver, kidney and spleen which were 52, 27 and 5 times higher than those of the respective tissues of age-matched Wistar rats. About 61% of hepatic and about 38% of renal Cu was recovered in the cytosolic fraction.(More)
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are produced and used in increasing quantities for industrial products, food, and drugs. The fate of ENPs after usage and impact on health is less known. Especially as air pollution, suspended nanoparticles have raised some attention, causing diseases of the lung and cardiovascular system. Human health risks may arise from(More)
Recent experiments demonstrate that the concentration of Ca2+ in cytoplasm of Chara corallina internodal cells plays important role in electrical excitation of the plasma membrane. The concentration of free Ca2+ in the cytoplasm -[Ca2+]c is also sensitive to visible light. Both phenomena were simultaneously studied by noninvasive measuring action potential(More)
The molecular mechanism of how hepatocytes maintain cholesterol homeostasis has become much more transparent with the discovery of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in recent years. These membrane proteins are members of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) family of transcription factors. They activate the expression of at(More)
Epidemiological studies of the past decades have provided a strong body of evidence that elevated levels of ambient particulate air pollution (PM) are associated with increased cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Exacerbations of ischemic and/or arrhythmic cardiac diseases have been linked to PM exposure. At a workshop held at the GSF-(More)
Based on epidemiologic observations, the issue of adverse health effects of inhaled ultrafine particles (UFP) is currently under intensive discussion. We therefore examined cardiovascular effects of UFP in a controlled animal exposure on young, healthy WKY rats. Short-term exposure (24 h) to carbon UFPs (38 nm, 180 microg m (-3)), generated by spark(More)
BACKGROUND Human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) are an essential component in the immunological defense network against a variety of harmful pathogens. We have studied the effects of the airborne pollutant sulfite on the calcium metabolism and respiratory burst of these cells simultaneously. METHODS A flow cytometric method was developed using the(More)
In nanotoxicology, the exact role of particle shape, in relation to the composition, on the capacity to induce toxicity is largely unknown. We investigated the toxic and immunotoxic effects of silver wires (length: 1.5 - 25 μm; diameter 100 - 160 nm), spherical silver nanoparticles (30 nm) and silver microparticles (<45 μm) on alveolar epithelial cells(More)