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1 Executive summary Education reform is top of the agenda of almost every country in the world. Yet despite massive increases in spending (last year, the world's governments spent $2 trillion on education) and ambitious attempts at reform, the performance of many school systems has barely improved in decades. This is all the more surprising because there(More)
2 Recent national and international tests show significant differences in student achievement. Students in the United States perform behind their OECD peers. Within the United States, white students generally perform better on tests than black students; rich students generally perform better than poor students; and students of similar backgrounds perform(More)
3 Foreword Foreword • This thematic report explores results of the 2003 cycle of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in order to identify teaching and learning strategies that contribute to increased achievement, particularly in mathematics. The analysis helps to clarify an understanding of the following: (i) the differences between(More)
This work is published under the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinions expressed and the arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the OECD member countries. This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of(More)
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P r o g r a m m e f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t A s s e s s m e n t This brochure describes the OECD's proposal for the PISA 2018 Global Competence assessment that emphasises quality and relevance. It builds on the work already undertaken by the Global Competence Expert Group and incorporates contributions from OECD member countries. The(More)