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A novel growth phase-associated two-component-type regulator, Fas (fibronectin/fibrinogen binding/haemolytic activity/streptokinase regulator), of Streptococcus pyogenes was identified in the M1 genome sequence, based on homologies to the histidine protein kinase (HPK) and response regulator (RR) part of the Staphylococcus aureus Agr and Streptococcus(More)
Conjugative transfer of the plasmid pCF10 by Enterococcus faecalis donor cells occurs in response to a peptide sex pheromone, cCF10, secreted by recipients. The plasmid-encoded cCF10 binding protein, PrgZ, is similar in sequence to binding proteins (OppAs) encoded by oligopeptide permease (opp) operons. Mutation of prgZ decreased the sensitivity of donor(More)
Streptococcus pyogenes expresses at least two virulence factors, the anti-phagocytic M protein and an inhibitor of chemotaxis, the C5a peptidase (ScpA), under control of the virR locus. To facilitate studies of this regulatory unit, we constructed a new shuttle vector with a staphylococcal chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter box which(More)
The DNA of group A streptococci (GAS) encodes several important virulence factors such as the antiphagocytic M protein, the Ig-Fc-binding M-related proteins (FcrA-like and EnnX-like) and the complement factor-inactivating C5a peptidase. The corresponding genes emm, fcrA, ennX, and scpA, respectively, were assumed to be located close together in the GAS(More)
In the last two decades an increasing number of local outbreaks of invasive group A streptococcus (GAS) infections including necrotizing fasciitis (NF) have been reported. We identified the streptococcal invasion locus (sil) which is essential for virulence of the M14 strain JS95 isolated from an NF patient. This locus contains six genes: silA/B and silD/E(More)
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) is a very important human pathogen with remarkable adaptation capabilities. Survival within the harsh host surroundings requires sensing potential on the bacterial side, which leads in particular to coordinately regulated virulence factor expression. GAS 'stand-alone' response regulators (RRs) and(More)
Within a genomic locus termed the vir regulon, virR genes of opacity factor-nonproducing (OF-) group A streptococci (GAS) are known to control the expression of the genes encoding M protein (emm) and C5a peptidase (scpA) and of virR itself. Within the corresponding genomic locus, opacity factor-producing (OF+) GAS harbor additional emm-related genes(More)
Previous studies of recent clinical isolates of serotype M1 group A streptococci indicated that they display two patterns of non-immune human IgG subclass binding reactivity associated with their M1 protein. One group reacted with all four IgG subclasses (type IIo), while the second group expressed an M1 protein reacting preferentially with human IgG3 (type(More)
Many group G streptococci (GGS) isolated from infected humans (but not from animal sources) express M or M-like proteins with biological, immunochemical, and genetic features similar to those of group A streptococci (GAS). To further elucidate the recently proposed M-like protein gene (emmL gene) polymorphisms in GGS, Southern blots of genomic DNAs from 38(More)
The M protein has been postulated to be a major group A streptococcal (GAS) virulence factor because of its contribution to the bacterial resistance to opsonophagocytosis. Direct evidence of this was only provided for GAS strains which expressed a single M protein. The majority of GAS express additional, structurally similar M-related proteins, Mrp and Enn,(More)