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Functional bivalent miniantibodies, directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor, accumulated to more than 3 gl−1 in high-cell-density cultures of Escherichia coli RV308(pHKK) on a pilot scale. The miniantibodies consist of scFv fragments with a C-termi-nal hinge followed by a helix-turn-helix motif, which homodimerizes in vivo. The improved(More)
The efficiency of both phage display in Escherichia coli and periplasmic expression of recombinant proteins may be limited by the same periplasmic folding steps. To search for E. coli factors that improve the efficiency of both procedures, a library of E. coli proteins was coexpressed in a phagemid vector that contained a poorly folding single-chain Fv(More)
Microtubules are cytoskeleton filaments consisting of αβ-tubulin heterodimers. They switch between phases of growth and shrinkage. The underlying mechanism of this property, called dynamic instability, is not fully understood. Here, we identified a designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin) that interferes with microtubule assembly in a unique manner. The(More)
By analyzing the human antibody repertoire in terms of structure, amino acid sequence diversity and germline usage, we found that seven V(H) and seven V(L) (four Vkappa and three Vlambda) germline families cover more than 95 % of the human antibody diversity used. A consensus sequence was derived for each family and optimized for expression in Escherichia(More)
We report here a system with which a correctly folded complete protein and its encoding mRNA both remain attached to the ribosome and can be enriched for the ligand-binding properties of the native protein. We have selected a single-chain fragment (scFv) of an antibody 10(8)-fold by five cycles of transcription, translation, antigen-affinity selection, and(More)
Crystallography has advanced our understanding of G protein-coupled receptors, but low expression levels and instability in solution have limited structural insights to very few selected members of this large protein family. Using neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) as a proof of principle, we show that two directed evolution technologies that we recently(More)
Multimerization of antibody fragments increases the valency and the molecular weight, both identified as key features in the design of the optimal targeting molecule. Here, we report the construction of mono-, di-, and tetrameric variants of the anti-tumor p185(HER-2) single chain Fv fragment 4D5 by fusion of self-associating peptides to the carboxyl(More)
The typical function of kinesins is to transport cargo along microtubules. Binding of ATP to microtubule-attached motile kinesins leads to cargo displacement. To better understand the nature of the conformational changes that lead to the power stroke that moves a kinesin's load along a microtubule, we determined the X-ray structure of human kinesin-1 bound(More)
Fv-Fragments of antibodies may dissociate at low protein concentrations and are too unstable for many applications at physiological temperatures. To stabilize Fv-fragments against dissociation, we have tested and compared three different strategies on the Fv-fragment of the well-characterized phosphocholine binding antibody McPC603 expressed and secreted in(More)
We have produced single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at levels up to 20 mg/L in shake flask culture by a combination of expression level tuning and overexpression of folding assistants. Overexpression of the chaperone BiP or protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) increases secretion titers 2-8 fold for five scFvs. The increases(More)