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Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and is often spread via wastewater contamination. Little is known about how the wastewater treatment process affects norovirus, and which factors influence virus concentrations. To investigate this, we collected wastewater samples monthly during one year at eight different key sites at the(More)
During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is challenged by the presence of the fetus, which must be tolerated despite being semiallogeneic. Uterine mucosal (or decidual) macrophages (M), one of the major leukocyte populations at the fetal-maternal interface, have been implicated in fetal tolerance, but information regarding their regulation is scarce. In(More)
The Swedish OCTO and NONA immune longitudinal studies were able to identify and confirm an immune risk profile (IRP) predictive of an increased 2-year mortality in very old individuals, 86–94 years of age. The IRP, was associated with persistent cytomegalovirus infection and characterized by inverted CD4/CD8 ratio and related to expansion of terminally(More)
The spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in which the mecA gene mediates resistance, threatens the treatment of staphylococcal diseases. The aims were to determine the effect of wastewater treatment processes on mecA gene concentrations, and the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA over time. To achieve this a municipal wastewater(More)
We studied retrospectively the medical records of all patients (n = 150) diagnosed, by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, with neuroborreliosis (NB) in Jönköping County, Sweden during 2000-2005. The number of NB cases increased from 5/100,000 to 10/100,000 inhabitants/year. In 17% of the patients, anti-Borrelia antibodies were found in CSF but not in serum(More)
BACKGROUND Although uterine macrophages are thought to play an important regulatory role at the maternal-fetal interface, their global gene expression profile is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using micro-array comprising approximately 14,000 genes, the gene expression pattern of human first trimester decidual CD14+ monocytes/macrophages was(More)
Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium frequently isolated from patients with bloodstream infections. Endothelial cells (EC) play an important role in host defence against bacteria, and recent reports have shown that infection of EC with S. aureus induces expression of cytokines and cell surface receptors involved in activating the innate immune(More)
Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis among adults. Susceptibility to disease has been associated with histo-blood group antigens and secretor status; nonsecretors are almost completely resistant to disease. We report a foodborne outbreak of GI.3 NoV gastroenteritis that affected 33/83 (40%) persons. Symptomatic(More)
The risk of contracting human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) after a tick bite is mainly unknown. In this study we investigated the clinical and serological response in 30 humans bitten by ticks positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Group A), 30 humans bitten by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)-positive ticks (Group B), and 30 humans bitten by(More)
A real-time multiplex PCR using the orfX and staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec of Staphylococcus aureus was developed. The aim was to achieve a rapid and sensitive high-throughput method for direct detection of heterogeneous methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in clinical samples, present in a low-endemic population, such as in Sweden.(More)