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Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis among adults. Susceptibility to disease has been associated with histo-blood group antigens and secretor status; nonsecretors are almost completely resistant to disease. We report a foodborne outbreak of GI.3 NoV gastroenteritis that affected 33/83 (40%) persons. Symptomatic(More)
The Swedish OCTO and NONA immune longitudinal studies were able to identify and confirm an immune risk profile (IRP) predictive of an increased 2-year mortality in very old individuals, 86–94 years of age. The IRP, was associated with persistent cytomegalovirus infection and characterized by inverted CD4/CD8 ratio and related to expansion of terminally(More)
The spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in which the mecA gene mediates resistance, threatens the treatment of staphylococcal diseases. The aims were to determine the effect of wastewater treatment processes on mecA gene concentrations, and the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA over time. To achieve this a municipal wastewater(More)
The risk of contracting human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) after a tick bite is mainly unknown. In this study we investigated the clinical and serological response in 30 humans bitten by ticks positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Group A), 30 humans bitten by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)-positive ticks (Group B), and 30 humans bitten by(More)
BACKGROUND Although uterine macrophages are thought to play an important regulatory role at the maternal-fetal interface, their global gene expression profile is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using micro-array comprising approximately 14,000 genes, the gene expression pattern of human first trimester decidual CD14+ monocytes/macrophages was(More)
The diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) requires the detection of intrathecal synthesis of Borrelia-specific antibodies, but in very early disease, the sensitivity may be low. We compared the performance of the second-generation IDEIA Lyme Neuroborreliosis test (Oxoid), based on purified native flagellum antigen, with two newly developed tests based on(More)
The risk of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection after a tick bite remains largely unknown. To address this, we investigated the presence of TBEV in ticks detached from humans in an attempt to relate viral copy number, TBEV subtype, and tick feeding time with the serological and clinical response of the tick-bitten participants. Ticks, blood(More)
We studied retrospectively the medical records of all patients (n = 150) diagnosed, by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, with neuroborreliosis (NB) in Jönköping County, Sweden during 2000-2005. The number of NB cases increased from 5/100,000 to 10/100,000 inhabitants/year. In 17% of the patients, anti-Borrelia antibodies were found in CSF but not in serum(More)
Oral infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) may cause severe enteritis, followed in up to 10% of cases by an extraintestinal complication, the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). HUS is characterized by a triad of symptoms: anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renalfailure due to thrombotic microangiopathy. EHEC produces several virulence(More)
Early regulators of disease may increase understanding of disease mechanisms and serve as markers for presymptomatic diagnosis and treatment. However, early regulators are difficult to identify because patients generally present after they are symptomatic. We hypothesized that early regulators of T cell-associated diseases could be found by identifying(More)