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The proteasome is the major ATP-dependent protease in eukaryotic cells, but limited structural information restricts a mechanistic understanding of its activities. The proteasome regulatory particle, consisting of the lid and base subcomplexes, recognizes and processes polyubiquitinated substrates. Here we used electron microscopy and a new heterologous(More)
AAA(+) unfoldases denature and translocate polypeptides into associated peptidases. We report direct observations of mechanical, force-induced protein unfolding by the ClpX unfoldase from E. coli, alone, and in complex with the ClpP peptidase. ClpX hydrolyzes ATP to generate mechanical force and translocate polypeptides through its central pore. Threading(More)
ATP-dependent proteases are vital to maintain cellular protein homeostasis. Here, we study the mechanisms of force generation and intersubunit coordination in the ClpXP protease from E. coli to understand how these machines couple ATP hydrolysis to mechanical protein unfolding. Single-molecule analyses reveal that phosphate release is the force-generating(More)
The 26S proteasome is the major eukaryotic ATP-dependent protease, responsible for regulating the proteome through degradation of ubiquitin-tagged substrates. Its regulatory particle, containing the heterohexameric AAA+ ATPase motor and the essential deubiquitinase Rpn11, recognizes substrates, removes their ubiquitin chains and translocates them into the(More)
The 26S proteasome is responsible for the selective, ATP-dependent degradation of polyubiquitinated cellular proteins. Removal of ubiquitin chains from targeted substrates at the proteasome is a prerequisite for substrate processing and is accomplished by Rpn11, a deubiquitinase within the 'lid' sub-complex. Prior to the lid's incorporation into the(More)
The 26S proteasome is the major eukaryotic ATP-dependent protease, yet the detailed mechanisms used by the proteasomal heterohexameric AAA+ unfoldase to drive substrate degradation remain poorly understood. To perform systematic mutational analyses of individual ATPase subunits, we heterologously expressed the unfoldase subcomplex from Saccharomyces(More)
Substrates are targeted for proteasomal degradation through the attachment of ubiquitin chains that need to be removed by proteasomal deubiquitinases before substrate processing. In budding yeast, the deubiquitinase Ubp6 trims ubiquitin chains and affects substrate processing by the proteasome, but the underlying mechanisms and the location of Ubp6 within(More)
The AAA+ ATPase Vps4 disassembles ESCRT-III and is essential for HIV-1 budding and other pathways. Vps4 is a paradigmatic member of a class of hexameric AAA+ ATPases that disassemble protein complexes without degradation. To distinguish between local displacement versus global unfolding mechanisms for complex disassembly, we carried out hydrogen/deuterium(More)
ATP-dependent proteases of the AAA+ family, including Escherichia coli ClpXP and the eukaryotic proteasome, contribute to maintenance of cellular proteostasis. ClpXP unfolds and translocates substrates into an internal degradation chamber, using cycles of alternating dwell and burst phases. The ClpX motor performs chemical transformations during the dwell(More)
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