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Hexameric ring-shaped ATPases of the AAA + (for ATPases associated with various cellular activities) superfamily power cellular processes in which macromolecular structures and complexes are dismantled or denatured, but the mechanisms used by these machine-like enzymes are poorly understood. By covalently linking active and inactive subunits of the ATPase(More)
ClpX is a AAA+ machine that uses the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to unfold native proteins and translocate unfolded polypeptides into the ClpP peptidase. The crystal structures presented here reveal striking asymmetry in ring hexamers of nucleotide-free and nucleotide-bound ClpX. Asymmetry arises from large changes in rotation between the large and(More)
Proteolytic AAA+ unfoldases use ATP hydrolysis to power conformational changes that mechanically denature protein substrates and then translocate the polypeptide through a narrow pore into a degradation chamber. We show that a tyrosine residue in a pore loop of the hexameric ClpX unfoldase links ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work by gripping substrates(More)
ClpXP is an ATP-fueled molecular machine that unfolds and degrades target proteins. ClpX, an AAA+ enzyme, recognizes specific proteins, and then uses cycles of ATP hydrolysis to denature any native structure and to translocate the unfolded polypeptide into ClpP for degradation. Here, we develop and apply single-molecule fluorescence assays to probe the(More)
The blue copper protein hemocyanin from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus is among the largest respiratory proteins found in nature (3.5 MDa) and exhibits a highly cooperative oxygen binding. Its 48 subunits are arranged as eight hexamers (1x6mers) that form the native 8x6mer in a nested hierarchy of 2x6mers and 4x6mers. This quaternary structure is(More)
On the basis of integral representations we propose fast numerical methods to solve the Cauchy problem for the stochastic wave equation without boundaries and with the Dirichlet boundary conditions. The algorithms are exact in a probabilistic sense. 1 Statement of the problem and integral representations Consider the stochastic wave equation ∂ 2 X ∂t 2 (t,(More)
We introduce a new approach supporting knowledge workers in sharing process-related knowledge. It is based on the insight that-while offering valuable context information-traditional business process modelling approaches are too rigid and inflexible to capture the actual way processes are executed. Therefore, business process models are made agile and open(More)
1 1 This work has been conducted within the EU-funded Integrating Project MATURE (grant no. 216346) which investigates knowledge maturing as new form of learning in businesses and organisations, a dynamic view one-learning and knowledge management. ABSTRACT In this paper, we describe an approach for agile business process execution and its developed(More)