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Proteolytic AAA+ unfoldases use ATP hydrolysis to power conformational changes that mechanically denature protein substrates and then translocate the polypeptide through a narrow pore into a degradation chamber. We show that a tyrosine residue in a pore loop of the hexameric ClpX unfoldase links ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work by gripping substrates(More)
  • Gabriel C. Lander, Eric Estrin, Mary E. Matyskiela, Charlene Bashore, Eva Nogales, Andreas Martin
  • 2012
The proteasome is the major ATP-dependent protease in eukaryotic cells, but limited structural information restricts a mechanistic understanding of its activities. The proteasome regulatory particle, consisting of the lid and base subcomplexes, recognizes and processes polyubiquitinated substrates. Here we used electron microscopy and a new heterologous(More)
ClpX is a AAA+ machine that uses the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to unfold native proteins and translocate unfolded polypeptides into the ClpP peptidase. The crystal structures presented here reveal striking asymmetry in ring hexamers of nucleotide-free and nucleotide-bound ClpX. Asymmetry arises from large changes in rotation between the large and(More)
  • Rodrigo A. Maillard, Gheorghe Chistol, Maya Sen, Maurizio Righini, Jiongyi Tan, Christian M. Kaiser +3 others
  • 2011
AAA(+) unfoldases denature and translocate polypeptides into associated peptidases. We report direct observations of mechanical, force-induced protein unfolding by the ClpX unfoldase from E. coli, alone, and in complex with the ClpP peptidase. ClpX hydrolyzes ATP to generate mechanical force and translocate polypeptides through its central pore. Threading(More)
The 26S proteasome is the major eukaryotic ATP-dependent protease, responsible for regulating the proteome through degradation of ubiquitin-tagged substrates. Its regulatory particle, containing the heterohexameric AAA+ ATPase motor and the essential deubiquitinase Rpn11, recognizes substrates, removes their ubiquitin chains and translocates them into the(More)
ATP-dependent proteases are vital to maintain cellular protein homeostasis. Here, we study the mechanisms of force generation and intersubunit coordination in the ClpXP protease from E. coli to understand how these machines couple ATP hydrolysis to mechanical protein unfolding. Single-molecule analyses reveal that phosphate release is the force-generating(More)
The 26S proteasome is the major eukaryotic ATP-dependent protease, yet the detailed mechanisms used by the proteasomal heterohexameric AAA+ unfoldase to drive substrate degradation remain poorly understood. To perform systematic mutational analyses of individual ATPase subunits, we heterologously expressed the unfoldase subcomplex from Saccharomyces(More)
On the basis of integral representations we propose fast numerical methods to solve the Cauchy problem for the stochastic wave equation without boundaries and with the Dirichlet boundary conditions. The algorithms are exact in a probabilistic sense. 1 Statement of the problem and integral representations Consider the stochastic wave equation ∂ 2 X ∂t 2 (t,(More)
ClpXP is an ATP-fueled molecular machine that unfolds and degrades target proteins. ClpX, an AAA+ enzyme, recognizes specific proteins, and then uses cycles of ATP hydrolysis to denature any native structure and to translocate the unfolded polypeptide into ClpP for degradation. Here, we develop and apply single-molecule fluorescence assays to probe the(More)