Andreas Mackensen

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Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that can be used for vaccination purposes, to induce a specific T-cell response in vivo against melanoma-associated antigens. We have shown that the sequential use of early-acting hematopoietic growth factors, stem cell factor, IL-3 and IL-6, followed by differentiation with IL-4 and(More)
Adoptive immunotherapy holds promise as a treatment for cancer and infectious diseases, but its development has been impeded by the lack of reproducible methods for generating therapeutic numbers of antigen-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). As a result, there are only limited reports of expansion of antigen-specific CTLs to the levels required(More)
Today, Antarctica exhibits some of the harshest environmental conditions for life on Earth. During the last glacial period, Antarctic terrestrial and marine life was challenged by even more extreme environmental conditions. During the present interglacial period, polar life in the Southern Ocean is sustained mainly by large-scale primary production. We(More)
A characteristic feature of tumors is high production of lactic acid due to enhanced glycolysis. Here, we show a positive correlation between lactate serum levels and tumor burden in cancer patients and examine the influence of lactic acid on immune functions in vitro. Lactic acid suppressed the proliferation and cytokine production of human cytotoxic T(More)
Programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1, also called B7-H1) is a recently described B7 family member. In contrast to B7-1 and B7-2, PD-L1 does not interact with either CD28 or CTLA-4. To date, one specific receptor has been identified that can be ligated by PD-L1. This receptor, programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1), has been shown to negatively regulate(More)
Human tumors frequently escape immune destruction, despite the presence of cytotoxic T cells (CTL) recognizing tumor-associated antigens (TAA). We have previously shown that programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), a recently identified ligand of the B7 superfamily, is expressed on murine tumors and can inhibit antitumor immune responses. To evaluate the clinical(More)
This first German evidence-based guideline for cutaneous melanoma was developed under the auspices of the German Dermatological Society (DDG) and the Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group (DeCOG) and funded by the German Guideline Program in Oncology. The recommendations are based on a systematic literature search, and on the consensus of 32 medical(More)
The interpretation of the results obtained from immunomonitoring of clinical trials is a difficult task due to the variety of methods and protocols available to detect vaccine-specific T-cell responses. This heterogeneity as well as the lack of standards has led to significant scepticism towards published results. In February 2005, a working group was(More)
Temperature reconstructions indicate that the Pliocene was approximately 3(°)C warmer globally than today, and several recent reconstructions of Pliocene atmospheric CO2 indicate that it was above pre-industrial levels and similar to those likely to be seen this century. However, many of these reconstructions have been of relatively low temporal resolution,(More)
Recent clinical data support ideas of Programmed death receptor-ligand 1 (PD-L1; also called B7-H1, CD274) playing an important role in immune evasion of tumor cells. Expression of PD-L1 on tumors strongly correlates with the survival of cancer patients. PD-L1 on tumors interacts with the co-inhibitory molecule Programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1, CD279) on T(More)