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Simulation results of global aerosol models have been assembled in the framework of the AeroCom intercomparison exercise. In this paper, we analyze the life cycles of dust, sea salt, sulfate, black carbon and particulate organic matter as simulated by sixteen global aerosol models. The diversities among the models for the sources and sinks, 5 burdens,(More)
International shipping contributes significantly to the fuel consumption of all transport related activities. Specific emissions of pollutants such as sulfur dioxide (SO 2) per kg of fuel emitted are higher than for road transport or aviation. Besides gaseous pollutants, ships also emit various types of particulate matter. The aerosol impacts the Earth's(More)
Tropospheric NO 2 plays a variety of significant roles in atmospheric chemistry. In the troposphere it is one of the most significant precursors of photochemical ozone (O 3) production and nitric acid (HNO 3). In this study tro-pospheric NO 2 columns were calculated by the fully coupled chemistry-climate model ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM. These have been compared(More)
Founded in 1988, DFKI today is one of the largest nonprofit contract research institutes in the field of innovative software technology based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods. DFKI is focusing on the complete cycle of innovation — from world-class basic research and technology development through leading-edge demonstrators and prototypes to product(More)
The aerosol dynamics module MADE has been coupled to the general circulation model ECHAM4 to simulate the chemical composition, number concentration, and size distribution of the global submicrometer aerosol. The present publication describes the new model system ECHAM4/MADE and presents model results in comparison with observations. The new model is able(More)
Typical arguments for the use of agent technology in business information systems rely on the heterogeneity of the information landscape, the physical distribution of its components, and the overall complexity of such systems. In the domain of IT support for Knowledge Management, these claims for agent systems typically also hold, but additionally are(More)
The global impact of shipping on atmospheric chemistry and radiative forcing, as well as the associated uncertainties, have been quantified using an ensemble of ten state-of-the-art atmospheric chemistry models and a pre-defined set of emission data. The analysis is performed for present-day conditions (year 2000) and for two future ship emission scenarios.(More)
Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back Close Full Screen / Esc Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Abstract First results of a multiannual integration with the new global aerosol model system ECHAM4/MADE are presented. This model system(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether chronic topical glaucoma therapy can control intraocular pressure (IOP) and protect nerve fibers in a rat model of pressure-induced optic nerve damage. METHODS Sixteen adult Brown Norway rats were-administered unilateral episcleral vein injections of hypertonic saline to produce scarring of the aqueous humor outflow pathways.(More)
The use of semantic representations in document-oriented environments – as formal annotations or embedded instances of a formal knowledge base – is seen as an enabling technology for intelligent services which may help knowledge workers in tasks like finding, structuring, or assessing information. Also, a high level of formalization has potential to(More)