Andreas Kirbach

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Humans draw maps when communicating about places or verbally describe routes between locations. Honeybees communicate places by encoding distance and direction in their waggle dances. Controversy exists not only about the structure of spatial memory but also about the efficiency of dance communication. Some of these uncertainties were resolved by studies in(More)
Exploration is an elementary and fundamental form of learning about the structure of the world [1-3]. Little is known about what exactly is learned when an animal seeks to become familiar with the environment. Navigating animals explore the environment for safe return to an important place (e.g., a nest site) and to travel between places [4]. Flying(More)
Ecteinascidia turbinata is a colonial ascidian that as an adult shares characters with phlebobranch ascidians, whereas the larvae are similar to aplousobranch ascidian larvae. The sarcotubular complex consists of invaginations of the sarcolemma that contact the sarcoplasmatic reticulum via dyads or triads. If present, the invaginations of the sarcolemma in(More)
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