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Host protection from infection relies on the recognition of pathogens by innate pattern-recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Here, we show that the orphan receptor TLR13 in mice recognizes a conserved 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence that is the binding site of macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin group (MLS) antibiotics(More)
Among leukocytes, only monocytes and macrophages were found to be highly susceptible to an infection by influenza A virus. After infection, de novo viral protein synthesis was initiated but then interrupted after 4-6 h. Most macrophages died by apoptosis within 25-30 h. Before cell death, however, macrophages responded to influenza A virus with a high(More)
The activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by lipopolysaccharide or other ligands evokes a proinflammatory immune response, which is not only capable of clearing invading pathogens but can also inflict damage to host tissues. It is therefore important to prevent an overshoot of the TLR-induced response where necessary, and here we show that extracellular(More)
The influence of single components of myocardial ischaemia, such as anoxia, substrate withdrawal, hyperkalemia and extracellular acidosis, on nicotine-induced norepinephrine (NE) release was investigated in the isolated perfused guinea-pig heart, in incubated human atrial tissue and in cultured bovine adrenal chromaffin cells (BCC). In normoxia, nicotine(More)
Mycoplasmas and their membranes are potent activators of macrophages, the active principle being lipoproteins and lipopeptides. Two stereoisomers of the mycoplasmal lipopeptide macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) differing in the configuration of the lipid moiety were synthesized and compared in their macrophage-activating potential, the R-MALP(More)
The genome of vertebrates contains endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that are largely nonfunctional relicts of ancestral germline infection by exogenous retroviruses. However, in some mouse strains ERVs are actively involved in disease. Here we report that nucleic acid-recognizing Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9 (TLR 3, TLR7, and TLR9) are essential for the(More)
After influenza A virus infection of human monocytes, we found a rapid and marked release of the mononuclear cell attracting chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1 alpha, and IP-10, with corresponding gene expression patterns as determined by Northern blot analysis. In striking contrast, the expression and release of the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 was not inducible.(More)
It is characteristic for virus infections that monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes infiltrate infected tissue while neutrophils are absent. To understand the mechanisms selectively attracting mononuclear cells in viral diseases, we examined in an influenza A virus model the expression and regulation of chemokines as candidate molecules responsible for the(More)
Monocytes/macrophages are highly susceptible to an infection with influenza A virus. After infection, de novo virus protein synthesis is detectable but rapidly interrupted before completion of the first viral replication cycle. Within 24-48 hours the infected monocytes die by apoptosis. Before cell death, infected monocytes initiate a cell-specific immune(More)
Chemokines and their receptors regulate migration of leukocytes under normal and inflammatory conditions. In this study, we analyzed the CC chemokine receptor (CCR) expression of monocytes differentiating in vitro to macrophages. We observed a time-dependent change of expression and functional responsiveness of CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5 within 48 h. Whereas(More)