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A record of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration during the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene, obtained from the Dome Concordia, Antarctica, ice core, reveals that an increase of 76 parts per million by volume occurred over a period of 6000 years in four clearly distinguishable intervals. The close correlation between CO2(More)
A high–resolution record of the atmospheric CO2 concentration from 60 to 20 thousand years before present (kyr BP) based on measurements on the ice core of Taylor Dome, Antarctica is presented. This record shows four distinct peaks of 20 parts per million by volume (ppmv) on a millennial time scale. Good correlation of the CO2 record with temperature(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to compare fully quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) measurements in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND Absolute quantification of myocardial perfusion and MPR with PET have proven(More)
BACKGROUND Endothelial dysfunction promotes atherosclerosis and precedes acute cardiovascular events. We investigated whether in vivo magnetic resonance imaging with the use of an albumin-binding contrast agent, gadofosveset, could detect endothelial damage associated with atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Furthermore, we(More)
AIMS Myocardial blood flow (MBF) is the gold standard to assess myocardial blood supply and, as recently shown, can be obtained by myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). The aims of this human study are (i) to test whether measurements of collateral-derived MBF by MCE are feasible during elective angioplasty and (ii) to validate the concept of(More)
BACKGROUND The efficacy of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for coronary collateral growth promotion and thus impending myocardial salvage has not been studied so far, to our best knowledge. METHODS AND RESULTS In 52 patients with chronic stable coronary artery disease, age 62+/-11 years, the effect on a marker of myocardial infarct size (ECG(More)
Animal experiments have shown that the coronary circulation is pressure distensible, i.e., myocardial blood volume (MBV) increases with perfusion pressure. In humans, however, corresponding measurements are lacking so far. We sought to quantify parameters reflecting coronary distensibility such as MBV and coronary resistance (CR) during and after coronary(More)
OBJECTIVES This study investigated the feasibility of visual and quantitative assessment of coronary vessel wall contrast enhancement (CE) for detection of symptomatic atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) and subclinical coronary vasculitis in autoimmune inflammatory disease (systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]), as well as the association with(More)
BACKGROUND The benefit of the coronary collateral circulation (natural bypass network) on survival is well established. However, data derived from smaller studies indicates that coronary collaterals may increase the risk for restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies(More)