Andreas Hutloff

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The T-cell-specific cell-surface receptors CD28 and CTLA-4 are important regulators of the immune system. CD28 potently enhances those T-cell functions that are essential for an effective antigen-specific immune response, and the homologous CTLA-4 counterbalances the CD28-mediated signals and thus prevents an otherwise fatal overstimulation of the lymphoid(More)
The expression of the chemokine receptor XCR1 and the function of its ligand XCL1 (otherwise referred to as ATAC, lymphotactin, or SCM-1) remained elusive to date. In the present report we demonstrated that XCR1 is exclusively expressed on murine CD8(+) dendritic cells (DCs) and showed that XCL1 is a potent and highly specific chemoattractant for this DC(More)
No genetic defect is known to cause common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), a heterogeneous human disorder leading to adult-onset panhypogammaglobulinemia. In a search for CVID candidate proteins, we found four of 32 patients to lack ICOS, the "inducible costimulator" on activated T cells, due to an inherited homozygous deletion in the ICOS gene. T cells(More)
ICOS is an important regulator of T cell effector function. ICOS-deficient patients as well as knockout mice show severe defects in T cell-dependent B cell responses. Several in vitro and in vivo studies attributed this phenomenon to impaired up-regulation of cell surface communication molecules and cytokine synthesis by ICOS-deficient T cells. However, we(More)
T-follicular helper (TFH) cells represent the subpopulation of CD4(+) T cells that provides help for antigen-specific B cells in the GC response. They are generated from naïve T cells during an immune response and are imprinted by their master transcription factor Bcl-6. It has been a long-standing question if TFH cells contribute to the CD4(+) memory(More)
Human ICOS (huICOS) is a T cell-specific molecule structurally related to CD28 and CTLA-4 with potent co-stimulatory activities on T cell proliferation, cytokine induction and T cell help for B cells. We have now cloned and characterized murine ICOS (muICOS). muICOS mRNA of 1.5 kb and 3.3 kb encodes a protein with a deduced molecular mass of 20.3 kDa, which(More)
The studies performed to date analyzed the overall participation of the inducible costimulator (ICOS) in model diseases, but did not yield information on the nature and function of ICOS-expressing T cells in vivo. We examined ICOS(+) T cells in the secondary lymphoid organs of nonmanipulated mice, in the context of an "unbiased" immune system shaped by(More)
The analysis of recent data reveals that T-cell co-stimulation is a hierarchical process with elements of mutual interdependence between individual co-stimulators. The expression and function of co-stimulatory molecules is biased on various T-cell subsets and is dependent on the T-cell differentiation state. The classical paradigm of T-cell co-stimulation(More)
Recently, we have identified the inducible co-stimulator (ICOS), an activation-dependent, T cell-specific cell surface molecule related to CD28 and CTLA-4. Detailed analysis of human ICOS presented here shows that it is a 55-60-kDa homodimer with differently N-glycosylated subunits of 27 and 29 kDa. ICOS requires both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and(More)
CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells could mature freshly isolated human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) in a superantigen-driven culture in a similar way to recombinant interleukin-3 (IL-3). Mature PDC expressed significantly higher levels of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOS-L), but similar levels of CD80 and CD86, when compared to mature monocyte-derived DC (moDC).(More)