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Sister chromatids are held together by the multisubunit cohesin complex, which contains two SMC (Smc1 and Smc3) and two non-SMC (Scc1 and Scc3) proteins. The crystal structure of a bacterial SMC "hinge" region along with EM studies and biochemical experiments on yeast Smc1 and Smc3 proteins show that SMC protamers fold up individually into rod-shaped(More)
Tight control of the number and distribution of crossovers is of great importance for meiosis. Crossovers establish chiasmata, which are physical connections between homologous chromosomes that provide the tension necessary to align chromosomes on the meiotic spindle. Understanding the mechanisms underlying crossover control has been hampered by the(More)
The nonrandom distribution of meiotic recombination influences patterns of inheritance and genome evolution, but chromosomal features governing this distribution are poorly understood. Formation of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate recombination results in the accumulation of Spo11 protein covalently bound to small DNA fragments. By(More)
BACKGROUND Every chromosome requires at least one crossover to be faithfully segregated during meiosis. At least two levels of regulation govern crossover distribution: where the initiating DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) occur and whether those DSBs are repaired as crossovers. RESULTS We mapped meiotic DSBs in budding yeast by identifying sites of(More)
The meiotic recombination checkpoint delays gamete precursors in G2 until DNA breaks created during recombination are repaired and chromosome structure has been restored. Here, we show that the FK506 binding protein Fpr3 prevents premature adaptation to damage and thus serves to maintain recombination checkpoint activity. Impaired checkpoint function is(More)
Numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are introduced into the genome in the course of meiotic recombination. This poses a significant hazard to the genomic integrity of the cell. Studies in a number of organisms have unveiled the existence of surveillance mechanisms or checkpoints that couple the formation and repair of DSBs to cell cycle progression.(More)
The faithful alignment of homologous chromosomes during meiotic prophase requires the coordination of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair with large-scale chromosome reorganization. Here we identify the phosphatase PP4 (Pph3/Psy2) as a mediator of this process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In pp4 mutants, early stages of crossover repair and(More)
The meiotic cell division reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid to form gametes for sexual reproduction. Although much progress has been made in understanding meiotic recombination and the two meiotic divisions, the processes leading up to recombination, including the prolonged pre-meiotic S phase (meiS) and the assembly of meiotic(More)
BACKGROUND Sister chromatid cohesion depends on a complex called cohesin, which contains at least four subunits: Smc1, Smc3, Scc1 and Scc3. Cohesion is established during DNA replication, is partially dismantled in many, but not all, organisms during prophase, and is finally destroyed at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. A quite separate protein called(More)