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Cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of mortality worldwide, is caused mainly by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of blood vessels. Lesions of atherosclerosis contain macrophages, T cells and other cells of the immune response, together with cholesterol that infiltrates from the blood. Targeted deletion of genes encoding costimulatory(More)
OBJECTIVE Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Autoimmune responses to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) contribute to its progression, whereas immunization with LDL may induce atheroprotective or proatherogenic responses. The objective of this study was to develop an atheroprotective vaccine by targeting a peptide of the LDL protein constituent(More)
BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a massive intimal accumulation of low-density lipoprotein that triggers chronic vascular inflammation with an autoimmune response to low-density lipoprotein components. METHODS AND RESULTS To dampen the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis, we injected hypercholesterolemic(More)
Immune responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are proposed to be important in atherosclerosis. To identify the mechanisms of recognition that govern T cell responses to LDL particles, we generated T cell hybridomas from human ApoB100 transgenic (huB100(tg)) mice that were immunized with human oxLDL. Surprisingly, none of the hybridomas(More)
OBJECTIVE Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease involving activation of adaptive and innate immune responses to modified lipoproteins. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen-presenting cells that activate T cells, are present in atherosclerotic lesions but their role for atherosclerosis-related immunity is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signals from membrane to nucleus through serine/threonine kinase receptors and their downstream effector molecules, termed Smad proteins. Recently, Smad6 and Smad7 were identified, which antagonize TGF-beta family signaling by preventing the activation of signal-transducing Smad complexes. Here we report that(More)
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory and thrombotic disease. Both platelets and lymphocytes play important roles in atherogenesis. However, information on their interaction is limited. We therefore studied how platelets regulate CD4+ T cell activation and differentiation. Human CD4+ T cells and autologous platelets were co-cultured. Platelets(More)
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induces proinflammatory signaling through BLT receptors expressed in atherosclerotic lesions. Either genetic or pharmacological targeting of the high affinity LTB4 receptor, BLT1, reduces atherosclerosis in different mouse models. The low affinity BLT2 receptor for LTB4 may transduce additional pro-atherogenic signaling, but combined(More)
The effect of the human TSH-receptor (TSHR) on the growth of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells lacking the endogenous expression of TSHR, was studied both in vitro and in vivo in NMRI nude mice. Cells from a human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line (C643) were transfected with a TSHR cDNA, and clones were isolated after neomycin selection. The(More)
TSH-induced desensitization was studied in nonthyroidal cells expressing functionally active TSH receptors (TSHR). Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and mouse NIH 3T3 cells were stably transfected with a human TSHR cDNA. Stimulation of the CHO-TSHR and NIH-TSHR cells with 10 mU/ml TSH resulted in a decreased sensitivity to a second TSH stimulation only in(More)