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Cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of mortality worldwide, is caused mainly by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of blood vessels. Lesions of atherosclerosis contain macrophages, T cells and other cells of the immune response, together with cholesterol that infiltrates from the blood. Targeted deletion of genes encoding costimulatory(More)
Immune responses to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are proposed to be important in atherosclerosis. To identify the mechanisms of recognition that govern T cell responses to LDL particles, we generated T cell hybridomas from human ApoB100 transgenic (huB100(tg)) mice that were immunized with human oxLDL. Surprisingly, none of the hybridomas(More)
BACKGROUND Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by a massive intimal accumulation of low-density lipoprotein that triggers chronic vascular inflammation with an autoimmune response to low-density lipoprotein components. METHODS AND RESULTS To dampen the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis, we injected hypercholesterolemic(More)
OBJECTIVE Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Autoimmune responses to low-density lipoproteins (LDL) contribute to its progression, whereas immunization with LDL may induce atheroprotective or proatherogenic responses. The objective of this study was to develop an atheroprotective vaccine by targeting a peptide of the LDL protein constituent(More)
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signals from membrane to nucleus through serine/threonine kinase receptors and their downstream effector molecules, termed Smad proteins. Recently, Smad6 and Smad7 were identified, which antagonize TGF-beta family signaling by preventing the activation of signal-transducing Smad complexes. Here we report that(More)
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory and thrombotic disease. Both platelets and lymphocytes play important roles in atherogenesis. However, information on their interaction is limited. We therefore studied how platelets regulate CD4+ T cell activation and differentiation. Human CD4+ T cells and autologous platelets were co-cultured. Platelets(More)
OBJECTIVE Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease involving activation of adaptive and innate immune responses to modified lipoproteins. Dendritic cells (DCs), which are professional antigen-presenting cells that activate T cells, are present in atherosclerotic lesions but their role for atherosclerosis-related immunity is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
Non-hairy and hairy human skin were investigated with the use of the indirect immunohistochemical technique employing antisera to different neuronal and non-neuronal structural proteins and neurotransmitter candidates. Fibers immunoreactive to antisera against neurofilaments, neuron-specific enolase, myelin basic protein, protein S-100, substance P,(More)
Neurofilament immunoreactive nerve fibers were demonstrated in human skin using indirect immunohistochemical technique with antibodies to neurofilament polypeptides. Neurofilament-positive fibers were seen as free nerve endings in the epidermis and in dermal papilla, in Meissner's corpuscles and as fibers crossing in the dermis. Strongly fluorescent nerve(More)
The effect of the human TSH-receptor (TSHR) on the growth of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells lacking the endogenous expression of TSHR, was studied both in vitro and in vivo in NMRI nude mice. Cells from a human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line (C643) were transfected with a TSHR cDNA, and clones were isolated after neomycin selection. The(More)