Andreas Handel

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Neuraminidase Inhibitors (NI) are currently the most effective drugs against influenza. Recent cases of NI resistance are a cause for concern. To assess the danger of NI resistance, a number of studies have reported the fraction of treated patients from which resistant strains could be isolated. Unfortunately, those results strongly depend on the details of(More)
The progression of an infection within a host determines the ability of a pathogen to transmit to new hosts and to maintain itself in the population. While the general connection between the infection dynamics within a host and the population-level transmission dynamics of pathogens is widely acknowledged, a comprehensive and quantitative understanding that(More)
There are important gaps in our current understanding of the influenza virus behavior. In particular, it remains unclear why some inter-pandemic seasons are associated with unusually high mortality impact, sometimes comparable to that of pandemics. Here we compare the epidemiological patterns of the unusually deadly 1951 influenza epidemic (A/H1N1) in(More)
Although the influenza A virus has been extensively studied, a quantitative understanding of the infection dynamics is still lacking. To make progress in this direction, we designed several mathematical models and compared them with data from influenza A infections of mice. We find that the immune response (IR) plays an important part in the infection(More)
Most mathematical models used to study the dynamics of influenza A have thus far focused on the between-host population level, with the aim to inform public health decisions regarding issues such as drug and social distancing intervention strategies, antiviral stockpiling or vaccine distribution. Here, we investigate mathematical modeling of influenza(More)
Pathogens that evolve resistance to drugs usually have reduced fitness. However, mutations that largely compensate for this reduction in fitness often arise. We investigate how these compensatory mutations affect population-wide resistance emergence as a function of drug treatment. Using a model of gonorrhea transmission dynamics, we obtain generally(More)
For many bacterial infections, drug resistant mutants are likely present by the time antibiotic treatment starts. Nevertheless, such infections are often successfully cleared. It is commonly assumed that this is due to the combined action of drug and immune response, the latter facilitating clearance of the resistant population. However, most studies of(More)
Antiviral drugs, most notably the neuraminidase inhibitors, are an important component of control strategies aimed to prevent or limit any future influenza pandemic. The potential large-scale use of antiviral drugs brings with it the danger of drug resistance evolution. A number of recent studies have shown that the emergence of drug-resistant influenza(More)
BACKGROUND Small populations are thought to be adaptively handicapped, not only because they suffer more from deleterious mutations but also because they have limited access to new beneficial mutations, particularly those conferring large benefits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Here, we test this widely held conjecture using both simulations and(More)
BACKGROUND Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis; however, the relative impacts of individual factors underlying severe illness are poorly understood. This report reviews published NoV outbreak reports to quantify hospitalization and mortality rates and assess their relationship with outbreak setting, transmission route,(More)