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Valvular regurgitation represents an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography has become the primary non-invasive imaging method for the evaluation of valvular regurgitation. The echocardiographic assessment of valvular regurgitation should integrate quantification of the regurgitation, assessment of the valve anatomy, and(More)
Mitral and tricuspid are increasingly prevalent. Doppler echocardiography not only detects the presence of regurgitation but also permits to understand mechanisms of regurgitation, quantification of its severity and repercussions. The present document aims to provide standards for the assessment of mitral and tricuspid regurgitation.
AIMS Availability of normative reference values for cardiac chamber quantitation is a prerequisite for accurate clinical application of echocardiography. In this study, we report normal reference ranges for cardiac chambers size obtained in a large group of healthy volunteers accounting for gender and age. Echocardiographic data were acquired using(More)
BACKGROUND The LIFE-Adult-Study is a population-based cohort study, which has recently completed the baseline examination of 10,000 randomly selected participants from Leipzig, a major city with 550,000 inhabitants in the east of Germany. It is the first study of this kind and size in an urban population in the eastern part of Germany. The study is(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, it has been reported that connexin40 (Cx40) deficiency in targeted mouse mutants is associated with a prolongation of P-wave and QRS complex duration on surface electrograms. The specific effects of Cx40 deficiency on sinus node function, sinoatrial, and atrioventricular conduction properties as well as on atrial vulnerability have not(More)
Intercellular channels of gap junctions are formed in vertebrates by the protein family of connexins and allow direct exchange of ions, metabolites and second messenger molecules between apposed cells (reviewed in [1-3]). In the mouse, connexin40 (Cx40) protein has been detected in endothelial cells of lung and heart and in certain heart muscle cells:(More)
The concept of point-of-care, problem-oriented focus cardiac ultrasound examination (FoCUS) is increasingly applied in the settings of medical emergencies, including cardiac diseases. The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) recognizes that cardiologists are not the only medical professionals dealing with cardiovascular emergencies. In(More)
Valvular regurgitation represents an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Echocardiography has become the primary non-invasive imaging method for the evaluation of valvular regurgitation. The echocardiographic assessment of valvular regurgitation should integrate the quantification of the regurgitation, assessment of the valve anatomy(More)
The narrowest central flow region of a jet is defined as the vena contracta. This term is applied also to the contracted zone of the Doppler color flow image of a jet at its passage through an incompetent mitral valve. The clinical applicability of measuring the size of the vena contracta by transthoracic color-coded Doppler echocardiography for estimating(More)
Connexin40-deficient (Cx40(-/-)/Cx43(+/+)) and connexin43-heterozygous knockout mice (Cx40(+/+)/Cx43(+/-)) are viable but show cardiac conduction abnormalities. The ECGs of adult double heterozygous animals (Cx40(+/-)/Cx43(+/-)) suggest additive effects of Cx40 and Cx43 haploinsufficiency on ventricular, but not on atrial, conduction. We also observed(More)