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Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) fruits contain substantial quantities of flavonoids, which are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the flavonoid constituents of ripe blueberries are known, the molecular genetics underlying their biosynthesis, localization, and changes that occur during development have not been investigated.(More)
Formation of the methylenedioxy bridge is an integral step in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and protoberberine alkaloids in the Papaveraceae family of plants. This reaction in plants is catalyzed by cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes. Two cDNAs that encode cytochrome P450 enzymes belonging to the CYP719 family were identified upon interrogation(More)
Morphine is a powerful analgesic natural product produced by the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Although formal syntheses of this alkaloid have been reported, the morphine molecule contains five stereocenters and a C-C phenol linkage that to date render a total synthesis of morphine commercially unfeasible. The C-C phenol-coupling reaction along the(More)
Plants of the order Ranunculales, especially members of the species Papaver, accumulate a large variety of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with about 2500 structures, but only the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and Papaver setigerum are able to produce the analgesic and narcotic morphine and the antitussive codeine. In this study, we investigated the(More)
Berberine, palmatine and dehydrocoreximine are end products of protoberberine biosynthesis. These quaternary protoberberines are elicitor inducible and, like other phytoalexins, are highly oxidized. The oxidative potential of these compounds is derived from a diverse array of biosynthetic steps involving hydroxylation, intra-molecular C-C coupling,(More)
Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a group of nitrogen-containing plant secondary metabolites comprised of an estimated 2500 identified structures. In BIA metabolism, (S)-reticuline is a key branch-point intermediate that can be directed into several alkaloid subtypes with different structural skeleton configurations. The morphinan alkaloids are one(More)
Western redcedar (WRC; Thuja plicata) produces high amounts of oxygenated thujone monoterpenoids associated with resistance against herbivore feeding, particularly ungulate browsing. Thujones and other monoterpenoids accumulate in glandular structures in the foliage of WRC. Thujones are produced from (+)-sabinene by sabinol and sabinone. Using metabolite(More)
The apple MdMYB9 gene encodes a positive regulator of proanthocyanidin synthesis that activates anthocyanidin reductase promoters from apple and poplar via interaction with basic helix-loop-helix proteins. The regulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs, condensed tannins) is of great importance in food plants due to the many benefits of PAs in the human diet. Two(More)
Plant heterotrimeric G-proteins are involved in a variety of signaling pathways, though only one alpha and a few betagamma isoforms of their subunits exist. In isolated plasma membranes of California poppy (Eschscholzia californica), the plant-specific Galpha subunit was isolated and identified immunologically and by homology of the cloned gene with that of(More)