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Hexameric ring-shaped ATPases of the AAA + (for ATPases associated with various cellular activities) superfamily power cellular processes in which macromolecular structures and complexes are dismantled or denatured, but the mechanisms used by these machine-like enzymes are poorly understood. By covalently linking active and inactive subunits of the ATPase(More)
The proteasome is the major ATP-dependent protease in eukaryotic cells, but limited structural information restricts a mechanistic understanding of its activities. The proteasome regulatory particle, consisting of the lid and base subcomplexes, recognizes and processes polyubiquitinated substrates. Here we used electron microscopy and a new heterologous(More)
ClpX is a AAA+ machine that uses the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to unfold native proteins and translocate unfolded polypeptides into the ClpP peptidase. The crystal structures presented here reveal striking asymmetry in ring hexamers of nucleotide-free and nucleotide-bound ClpX. Asymmetry arises from large changes in rotation between the large and(More)
ClpX, an archetypal proteolytic AAA+ unfoldase, must engage the ssrA tags of appropriate substrates prior to ATP-dependent unfolding and translocation of the denatured polypeptide into ClpP for degradation. Here, specificity-transplant and disulfide-crosslinking experiments reveal that the ssrA tag interacts with different loops that form the top, middle,(More)
Proteolytic AAA+ unfoldases use ATP hydrolysis to power conformational changes that mechanically denature protein substrates and then translocate the polypeptide through a narrow pore into a degradation chamber. We show that a tyrosine residue in a pore loop of the hexameric ClpX unfoldase links ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work by gripping substrates(More)
In the AAA+ ClpXP protease, repetitive cycles of ATP hydrolysis by ClpX unfold ssrA-tagged substrates, which are unraveled vectorially starting at the C-terminal tag and translocated into ClpP for degradation. When the ATP-hydrolysis rate drops below a critical threshold, ClpXP fails to degrade ssrA-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP) but degrades other(More)
In the ClpXP proteolytic machine, ClpX uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to unfold protein substrates and translocate them through a central pore and into the degradation chamber of ClpP. Here, we demonstrate a bipartite system of ClpX-ClpP interactions that serves multiple functional roles. High-affinity contacts between six loops near the periphery of the(More)
The 26S proteasome is the major eukaryotic ATP-dependent protease, responsible for regulating the proteome through degradation of ubiquitin-tagged substrates. Its regulatory particle, containing the heterohexameric AAA+ ATPase motor and the essential deubiquitinase Rpn11, recognizes substrates, removes their ubiquitin chains and translocates them into the(More)
AAA(+) unfoldases denature and translocate polypeptides into associated peptidases. We report direct observations of mechanical, force-induced protein unfolding by the ClpX unfoldase from E. coli, alone, and in complex with the ClpP peptidase. ClpX hydrolyzes ATP to generate mechanical force and translocate polypeptides through its central pore. Threading(More)
ATP-dependent proteases are vital to maintain cellular protein homeostasis. Here, we study the mechanisms of force generation and intersubunit coordination in the ClpXP protease from E. coli to understand how these machines couple ATP hydrolysis to mechanical protein unfolding. Single-molecule analyses reveal that phosphate release is the force-generating(More)