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HOX genes specify cell fate in the anterior-posterior axis of animal embryos. Invertebrate chordates have one HOX cluster, but mammals have four, suggesting that cluster duplication facilitated the evolution of vertebrate body plans. This report shows that zebrafish have seven hox clusters. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic mapping suggest a chromosome(More)
A homeobox sequence has been used to isolate a new Xenopus cDNA, named XIHbox6. A short probe from this gene serves as an early marker of posterior neural differentiation in the Xenopus nervous system. The gene recognized by this cDNA sequence is first transcribed at the late gastrula stage and solely in the posterior neural cells. The gene is expressed(More)
Segmentation of a vertebrate embryo begins with the subdivision of the paraxial mesoderm into somites through a not-well-understood process. Recent studies provided evidence that the Notch-Delta and the FGFR (fibroblast growth factor receptor) signalling pathways are required for segmentation. In addition, the Mesp family of bHLH transcription factors have(More)
We cloned and characterized the Drosophila homolog of mammalian Jun-N-terminal kinases (DJNK). We show that DJNK is encoded by basket (bsk). Like hemipterous (hep), which encodes the Drosophila JNK kinase, bsk is required in the embryo for dorsal closure, a process involving coordinate cell shape changes of ectodermal cells. Dorsal closure can also be(More)
The otic placode is a transient embryonic structure that gives rise to the inner ear. Although inductive signals for otic placode formation have been characterized, less is known about the molecules that respond to these signals within otic primordia. Here, we identify a mutation in zebrafish, hearsay, which disrupts the initiation of placode formation. We(More)
Sensory placodes are ectodermal thickenings that give rise to elements of the vertebrate cranial sensory nervous system, including the inner ear and nose. Although mutations have been described in humans, mice and zebrafish that perturb ear and nose development, no mutation is known to prevent sensory placode formation. Thus, it has been postulated that a(More)
This paper introduces Virtual Information Towers (VITs) as a concept for presenting and accessing location-aware information with mobile clients. A VIT is a means of struc-turing location-aware information, which is assigned to a certain geographical position while having a certain area of visibility. A user equipped with a mobile, wearable computer has(More)
In zebrafish, BMP signaling establishes cell identity along the dorsoventral (DV) axis during gastrulation. Owing to the early requirements of BMP activity in DV patterning, it has been difficult to assign later roles in cell fate specification to specific BMP ligands. In this study, we have taken advantage of two follistatin-like genes (fstl1 and fstl2),(More)
The zebrafish muscle segment homeobox genes msxB, msxC and msxE are expressed in partially overlapping domains in the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm. We examined the roles of these msx genes in early development. Disrupting individual msx genes causes modest variable defects, whereas disrupting all three produces a reproducible severe phenotype,(More)
The vertebrate inner ear arises from the otic placode, a transient thickening of ectodermal epithelium adjacent to neural crest domains in the presumptive head. During late gastrulation, cells fated to comprise the inner ear are part of a domain in cranial ectoderm that contain precursors of all sensory placodes, termed the preplacodal region (PPR). The(More)