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INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to assess for the first time the prevalence and factors associated with stimulant use exclusively for cognitive enhancement among pupils and university students in Germany. METHODS A sample of 1 035 pupils (vocational and grammar schools) in small and big cities and 512 university students of 3 Departments (Medicine,(More)
INTRODUCTION Substance use for cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing importance. There are only few data about substances, prevalence rates and factors associated with CE. The aim of this study was to assess first data about the use of coffee, caffeinated drinks and caffeine tablets for CE at school and university. METHODS A self-report(More)
Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding the use of caffeinated substances (coffee, caffeinated drinks, caffeine tablets) but remarkably lower prevalence rates regarding(More)
Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) describes the use of psychoactive drugs for the purpose of enhancing cognition (e. g., fatigue, concentration, memory etc.) by healthy subjects without medical need. Drugs used for this purpose can be divided into freely available, over-the-counter drugs (e. g., methylxanthines such as caffeine), prescription drugs (e.(More)
BACKGROUND Surgeons are usually exposed to high workloads leading to fatigue and stress. This not only increases the likelihood of mistakes during surgery but also puts pressure on surgeons to use drugs to counteract fatigue, distress, concentration deficits, burnout or symptoms of depression. The prevalence of surgeons taking pharmacological cognitive(More)
Pharmacological "cognitive enhancement" (CE) is defined as the use of any psychoactive drug with the purpose of enhancing cognition, e.g. regarding attention, concentration or memory by healthy subjects. Substances commonly used as CE drugs can be categorized into three groups of drugs: (1) over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as coffee, caffeinated(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) are extracellular molecules known to mediate programmed cell death (PCD) in the developing retina. In the present study, we investigated the expression profiles and activity levels of ligands and receptors of the TGF-beta and BMP4 family during the physiological PCD periods of(More)
Pharmacological neuroenhancement refers to the use of psychoactive substances by healthy subjects with the purpose of cognitive enhancement, e.g., vigilance, concentration, memory, or mood. "Brain doping", however, refers to the illicit use of a subcategory of these substances such as prescription drugs. This subcategory includes psychostimulants (e.g.,(More)
BACKGROUND Academic performance enhancement or cognitive enhancement (CE) via stimulant drug use has received increasing attention. The question remains, however, whether CE solely represents the use of drugs for achieving better academic or workplace results or whether CE also serves various other purposes. The aim of this study was to put the phenomenon(More)
OBJECTIVE Little is known regarding characteristics of subjects using substances exclusively for the purpose of pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN). Aim of this pilot study was to characterize students in Germany who use methylphenidate (MPH) and/or amphetamines (AMPH) for PN. METHODS Semi-structured interviews among 20 students who reported the use of(More)