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BAD is a Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by phosphorylation in response to survival factors. Binding of BAD to mitochondria is thought to be exclusively mediated by its BH3 domain. We show here that BAD binds to lipids with high affinities, predominantly to negatively charged… (More)
Mammalian 14-3-3 proteins play a crucial role in the activation process of RAF kinases. However, little is known about the selectivity of the mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms with respect to RAF association and activation. Using mass spectrometry, we analyzed the composition of the 14-3-3 isoforms attached to RAF kinases and found that B-RAF associates in vivo… (More)
Recruitment of RAF kinases to the plasma membrane was initially proposed to be mediated by Ras proteins via interaction with the RAF Ras binding domain (RBD). Data reporting that RAF kinases possess high affinities for particular membrane lipids support a new model in which Ras-RAF interactions may be spatially restricted to the plane of the membrane.… (More)
BAD, a member of the BCL2 family, exhibits an original mode of regulation by phosphorylation. In the present report, we examine the role of the kinase C-RAF in this process. We show that the inducible activation of C-RAF promotes the rapid phosphorylation of BAD on Serine-112 (Ser-75 in the human protein), through a cascade involving the kinases MEK and… (More)
We give a complete characterisation of the sets in which Peano derivatives of functions, which are definable in an o-minimal expansion of a real closed field, are continuously respectively Fréchet differentiable.
BAD is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by phosphorylation in response to survival factors. Although much attention has been devoted to the identification of phosphorylation sites in murine BAD, little data are available with respect to phosphorylation of human BAD protein. Using mass spectrometry, we identified here… (More)
Let M be an o-minimal expansion of the real exponential field which possesses smooth cell decomposition. We prove that for every definable open set, the definable indefinitely continuously differentiable functions are a dense subset of the definable continuous function with respect to the o-minimal Whitney topology.
The C-Raf kinase is regulated by numerous phosphorylation steps. To quantify the most prominent phosphorylation sites of C-Raf, we performed mass spectrometry analysis of wild-type C-Raf and the constitutively active C-Raf mutant C-Raf-Y340D/Y341D. We confirmed phosphorylation of most of the sites reported in the literature with the exception that we did… (More)
Given an o-minimal expansion M of a real closed field R which is not polynomially bounded. Let P ∞ denote the definable indefinitely Peano differentiable functions. If we further assume that M admits P ∞ cell decomposition , each definable closed set A ⊂ R n is the zero-set of a P ∞ function f : R n → R. This implies P ∞ approximation of definable… (More)