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This paper examines inflation indicators for the euro area by studying the relationship between inflation, output, money and interest rates, using data spanning 1980—2001. The central finding is that both the output gap and the real money gap (the difference between the real money stock and the long-run equilibrium real money stock) contain considerable(More)
To identify genes involved in the regulation and execution of leaf senescence and whole-plant nitrogen reallocation, near-isogenic barley germplasm divergent in senescence timing and protein concentration of mature grains was contrasted. Barley lines differing in allelic state at a major locus on chromosome six, controlling grain protein concentration, were(More)
The Delta-Notch signaling pathway plays a central role in the development of most vertebrate organs. The Hey family of bHLH transcription factors are direct targets of Notch signaling. Loss of Hey2 in the mouse leads to cardiac defects with high postnatal lethality. We have now generated a mouse Hey1 knockout that has no apparent phenotypic defect. The(More)
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are frequent vascular abnormalities caused by mutations in one of the CCM genes. CCM1 (also known as KRIT1) stabilizes endothelial junctions and is essential for vascular morphogenesis in mouse embryos. However, cellular functions of CCM1 during the early steps of the CCM pathogenesis remain unknown. We show here that(More)
Plant cell vacuoles may have either storage or degradative functions. Vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) are synthesized in response to wounding and to developmental switches that affect carbon and nitrogen sinks. Here we show that VSPs are stored in a unique type of vacuole that is derived from degradative central vacuoles coincident with insertion of a(More)
Leaf senescence can be described as the dismantling of cellular components during a specific time interval before cell death. This has the effect of remobilizing N in the form of amino acids that can be relocalized to developing seeds. High levels of carbohydrates have previously been shown to promote the onset of the senescence process. Carbohydrate(More)
Congenital heart defects affect almost 1% of human newborns. Recently, mutations in Notch ligands and receptors have been found to cause a variety of heart defects in rodents and humans. However, the molecular effects downstream of Notch are still poorly understood. Here we report that combined inactivation of Hey1 and HeyL, two primary target genes of(More)
SUMMARY Senescence is the highly regulated last developmental phase of plant organs and tissues, and is optimized to allow nutrient remobilization to surviving plant parts, such as seeds of annual crops. High leaf carbohydrate to nitrogen (C : N) ratios have been implicated in the induction or acceleration of the senescence process. *A combination of phloem(More)
Leaf senescence and nitrogen remobilization from senescing tissues are two important factors determining grain protein content (GPC) in cereals. We compared near-isogenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm varying in the allelic state of a major GPC quantitative trait locus on chromosome 6, delineated by molecular markers HVM74 and ABG458 and explaining(More)
Cereals including wheat and barley are of primary importance to ensure food security for the 21st century. A combination of lab- and field-based approaches has led to a considerably improved understanding of the importance of organ and particularly of whole-plant (monocarpic) senescence for wheat and barley yield and quality. A delicate balance between(More)