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Located in the principal cells of the collecting duct, aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is responsible for the regulated water reabsorption in the kidney and is indispensable for the maintenance of body water balance. Disregulation or malfunctioning of AQP2 can lead to severe diseases such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis and(More)
SoPIP2;1 is one of the major integral proteins in spinach leaf plasma membranes. In the Xenopus oocyte expression system its water channel activity is regulated by phosphorylation at the C terminus and in the first cytosolic loop. To assess its structure, SoPIP2;1 was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris as a His-tagged protein and in the non-tagged(More)
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses consists of a large catalytic protein (L) and a phosphoprotein cofactor (P). During infection, the RdRP replicates and transcribes the viral genome, which resides inside an oligomer of nucleocapsid protein (N-RNA). The classical view of P as a cofactor for L assigns a primary(More)
We present the Image Processing Library and Toolbox, IPLT, in the context of a collaborative electron microscopy processing effort, which has driven the evolution of our software architecture over the last years. The high-level interface design as well as the underlying implementations are described to demonstrate the flexibility of the IPLT framework. It(More)
We present the foundation for establishing a modular, collaborative, integrated, open-source architecture for image processing of electron microscopy images, named iplt. It is designed around object oriented paradigms and implemented using the programming languages C++ and Python. In many aspects it deviates from classical image processing approaches. This(More)
INTRODUCTION Oxygen is a critical parameter proposed to modulate the functions of chondrocytes ex-vivo as well as in damaged joints. This article investigates the effect of low (more physiological) oxygen percentage on the biosynthetic and catabolic activity of human articular chondrocytes (HAC) at different phases of in vitro culture. METHODS HAC(More)
Nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses initiate infection by delivering into the host cell a highly specialized RNA synthesis machine comprising the genomic RNA completely encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein and associated with the viral polymerase. The catalytic core of this protein-RNA complex is a 250-kDa multifunctional large (L)(More)
Efficient reconstitution of membrane proteins for functional analyses can be achieved by dilution of a ternary mixture containing proteins, lipids and detergents. Once the dilution reaches the point where the free detergent concentration would become lower than the critical micellar concentration, detergent is recruited from the bound detergent pool, and(More)
MOTIVATION Developers of new methods in computational structural biology are often hampered in their research by incompatible software tools and non-standardized data formats. To address this problem, we have developed OpenStructure as a modular open source platform to provide a powerful, yet flexible general working environment for structural(More)
Segmented negative-sense viruses of the family Arenaviridae encode a large polymerase (L) protein that contains all of the enzymatic activities required for RNA synthesis. These activities include an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and an RNA endonuclease that cleaves capped primers from cellular mRNAs to prime transcription. Using purified(More)