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Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), i. e., the quantification of serum or plasma concentrations of medications for dose optimization, has proven a valuable tool for the patient-matched psychopharmacotherapy. Uncertain drug adherence, suboptimal tolerability, non-response at therapeutic doses, or pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions are typical situations(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to identify quantitative data on the use of seclusion and restraint in different countries and on initiatives to reduce these interventions. METHODS Combined literature review on initiatives to reduce seclusion and restraint, and epidemiological data on the frequency and means of use in the 21st century in different(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive functions were assessed before and following a course of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with depression participating in a sham-controlled, randomized trial of rTMS as adjunct to antidepressant treatment. METHOD Forty-one medicated inpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of a depressive episode were(More)
OBJECTIVE Several studies support the hypothesis of an antidepressive or mood-enhancing effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on depressive patients. The most acute concern regarding rTMS is possible seizure induction; therefore, reports on seizure during rTMS are of special significance. METHOD We describe a case in which high(More)
BACKGROUND Bulimia nervosa (BN) is often associated with depressive symptoms and treatment with antidepressants has shown positive effects. A shared deficient serotonergic transmission was postulated for both syndromes. The left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was argued to regulate eating behaviour and to be dysfunctional in eating disorders. METHODS(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a well-established diagnostic probe in neurological practice. The increasing knowledge of biological mechanisms in electroconvulsive therapy presents a clear case for studying the applicability of TMS as a therapeutic tool in psychiatry. Based on the results of our pilot study showing a possible antidepressive(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been reported to demonstrate slight effects in the treatment of depression. Hence, a novel bilateral versus unilateral and sham stimulation design was applied to further assess rTMS' antidepressant effects. Forty one medication free patients with major depression, admitted to a psychiatric unit(More)
INTRODUCTION Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) aims to optimize pharmacotherapy treatment. Knowledge, availability and use of TDM for psychiatric patients, however, differ between countries. In this survey we analysed the practice in Italy of TDM for psychoactive drugs. METHODS A semi-structured questionnaire was sent out to 211 mental health centres(More)
INTRODUCTION Sexual dysfunction is a potential side effect of cardiovascular drugs: this article is a critical review of the current literature. Many studies have been published on this topic. Most of these studies are not methodologically robust, few are RCTs and most did not use a validated rating scale to evaluate sexual functioning. In addition, other(More)