Andreas C. Fröbius

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Hox genes define regional identities along the anterior-posterior axis in many animals. In a number of species, Hox genes are clustered in the genome, and the relative order of genes corresponds with position of expression in the body. Previous Hox gene studies in lophotrochozoans have reported expression for only a subset of the Hox gene complement and/or(More)
Hox and ParaHox genes are transcriptional regulators vital for many aspects of embryonic development in bilaterian animals and are considered to have originated from one ancestral proto-Hox/ParaHox cluster. Hox genes are clustered in the genome of both protostomes and deuterostomes, and there is a specific relationship between the position of a gene in the(More)
The capability of regenerating posterior segments and pygidial structures is ancestral for annelids and has been lost only a few times within this phylum. As one of the three major segmented taxa, annelids enable us to monitor reconstruction of lost tissues and organs. During regeneration, regional identities have to be imprinted onto the newly formed(More)
The paired-like class of homeobox genes contains numerous distinct families, many of which have been implicated in a variety of developmental functions. We report the isolation and expression of a gene with high similarity to Drosophila melanogaster homeobrain from the polychaete annelid Capitella sp. I. The homeobrain-like (hbnl) gene is a paired-like gene(More)
Three inducible serine protease inhibitors (ISPI-1, 2, 3) have been purified from larval hemolymph of greater wax moth larvae, Galleria mellonella, and characterized at a molecular level. These inhibitors were synthesized after larvae were injected with a yeast polysaccharide, zymosan preparation. ISPI-1,2,3 were active against various serine proteases(More)
Hydra is a classical model to study key features of embryogenesis such as axial patterning and stem cell differentiation. In contrast to other organisms where these mechanisms are active only during embryonic development, in Hydra they can be studied in adults. The underlying assumption is that the machinery governing adult patterning mimics regulatory(More)
Platynereis and other polychaete annelids with homonomous segmentation are regarded to closely resemble ancestral forms of bilateria. The head region comprises the prostomium, the peristomium, a variable number of cephalized body segments and several appendages, like cirri, antennae and palps. The trunk of such polychaetes shows numerous, nearly identical(More)
The phylum Rotifera consists of minuscule, nonsegmented animals with a unique body plan and an unresolved phylogenetic position. The presence of pharyngeal articulated jaws supports an inclusion in Gnathifera nested in the Spiralia. Comparison of Hox genes, involved in animal body plan patterning, can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships. Here, we(More)
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