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Linear trend analysis of time series is standard procedure in many scientific disciplines. If the number of data is large, a trend may be statistically significant even if data are scattered far from the trend line. This study introduces and tests a quality criterion for time trends referred to as statistical meaningfulness, which is a stricter quality(More)
This study aims at bridging the gap between freshwater and marine eutrophication studies by presenting (1) a cross-system analysis of the relationship between chlorophyll and the total nitrogen (TN) to total phosphorus (TP) ratio (2) a general model to predict concentrations of cyanobacteria from data on TP, the TN/TP ratio, salinity and temperature, and(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: Abstract The focus in this work is on the conditions in Ringkøbing Fjord (Denmark),(More)
This paper presents a comparative study based on a very comprehensive set of empirical data from many international data bases including fresh water systems, coastal brackish water areas and marine coastal areas. We present a general trophic level classification system (oligotrophic, mesotrophic, eutrophic and hypertrophic categories) for sites/areas(More)
This work uses empirical data from the HELCOM database and a new empirically-based model to predict the concentration of cyanobacteria in the Baltic Proper. The aim has been to estimate nitrogen fixation. The inherent variabil-ities/patchiness in the variables regulating nitrogen fixation are great. This means that different approaches may provide(More)
Nutrient over-enrichment of the Baltic Sea, accompanied by intensified algal blooms and decreasing water clarity, has aroused widespread concern in the surrounding countries during the last four decades. This work has used a well-tested dynamic mass-balance model to investigate which decrease in total phosphorus loading would be required to meet the(More)
The Baltic Sea, a large estuarine sea in northern Europe, has for many decades displayed obvious signs of an-thropogenic eutrophication. This study relates long-term trends in total phosphorus (TP) loadings and TP concentrations in surface waters regarding five major sub-basins of the Baltic Sea; the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea, the Baltic Proper, the(More)
The main aim of this study was to investigate the number and biomass of impinged fish at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Of particular interest was the number of impinged individuals of the critically endangered European eel (Anguilla anguilla) which is regularly caught in the cooling system. Another aim was(More)
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