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Animal studies provided evidence that stress modulates multiple memory systems, favoring caudate nucleus-based " habit " memory over hippocampus-based " cognitive " memory. However, effects of stress on learning strategy and memory consolidation were not differentiated. We specifically address the effects of psychosocial stress on the applied learning(More)
Stress can have enhancing or impairing effects on memory. Here, we addressed the effect of pre-learning stress on subsequent memory and asked whether neutral and emotionally valent information are differentially affected by specific stress components, autonomic arousal and stress-induced cortisol. Ninety-six healthy men and women underwent either a stressor(More)
Previous studies have shown that intranasally administered insulin exerts an inhibitory influence on the basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. To date, however, it remains unclear as to whether intranasal insulin does furthermore affect HPA axis responsiveness in situations of stress. Here, we tested whether intranasally administered(More)
Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity at the time of acquisition is associated with human memory. However, rather than SNS activity per se, it may be afferent baroreflex feedback that is responsible for this effect. A pharmacological design was employed to unload (SNP, sodium nitro-prusside) and load (norepinephrine) baroreceptors. In addition to two(More)
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