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Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are synthesized by a set of galactosyltransferases, which sequentially add galactose units from galactinol to sucrose. The accumulation of RFOs was studied in maturing seeds of two pea (Pisum sativum) lines with contrasting RFO composition. Seeds of the line SD1 accumulated stachyose as the predominant RFO, whereas(More)
The plant parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii induces specific syncytial feeding sites in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana from where it withdraws all required nutrients. Therefore, syncytia have to be well supplied with assimilates and generate strong sinks in the host plant's transport system. Import mechanisms and consequent accumulation of sucrose(More)
The plant parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii induces syncytial feeding structures in the roots of host plants. Nematode-induced syncytia become strong sink tissues in the plant solute circulation system as the parasites start withdrawing nutrients. In the present work, the expression pattern of the phloem-specific sucrose transporter AtSUC4 (also(More)
Cyst nematodes induce root syncytia with specific features such as hypertrophy, increased metabolic activity and fusion with adjacent cells. Cell walls of the syncytia undergo massive changes such as thickening, local dissolution and formation of ingrowths. Cell wall degrading and modifying proteins are apparently involved in syncytium formation but(More)
Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) are the most important C reserves in the tissues of deciduous and evergreen tree species. Besides NSC, cell-wall hemicelluloses as the second most abundant polysaccharides in plants have often been discussed to serve as additional mobile carbon (C) reserves during periods of enhanced carbon-sink activities. To assess the(More)
Starch and soluble sugars are the major photosynthetic products, and their carbon isotope signatures reflect external versus internal limitations of CO(2) fixation. There has been recent renewed interest in the isotope composition of carbohydrates, mainly for use in CO(2) flux partitioning studies at the ecosystem level. The major obstacle to the use of(More)
Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are almost ubiquitous in seeds and have been hypothesized to constitute an important energy source during germination. To test this hypothesis we applied a specific alpha-galactosidase inhibitor (1-deoxygalactonojirimycin, DGJ) to germinating pea seeds, resulting in a complete blocking of RFO breakdown. The(More)
Resource stoichiometry (C:N:P) is an important determinant of litter decomposition. However, the effect of elemental stoichiometry on the gross rates of microbial N and P cycling processes during litter decomposition is unknown. In a mesocosm experiment, beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) litter with natural differences in elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P) was(More)
The plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii stimulates plant root cells to form syncytial feeding structures which synthesize all nutrients required for successful nematode development. Cellular re-arrangements and modified metabolism of the syncytia are accompanied by massive intra- and intercellular solute allocations. In this study the expression(More)
Hemicelluloses account for one-quarter of the global dry plant biomass and therefore are the second most abundant biomass fraction after cellulose. Despite their quantitative significance, the responsiveness of hemicelluloses to atmospheric carbon oversupply is still largely unknown, although hemicelluloses could serve as carbon sinks with increasing CO(2)(More)