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BACKGROUND Recent research attempting to develop novel medications has turned to glutamatergic signaling pathways to find effective treatments for symptom clusters of schizophrenia. This meta-analysis was undertaken to clarify whether a difference in peripheral glutamate levels exists between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHODS The(More)
Three experiments were conducted in order to investigate the possible involvement of the reactive oxygen species in the nociception within the subnucleus caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vc). In the first experiment the extracellular level of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated by microdialysis in the Vc of two groups of six rats before and after a(More)
The ketogenic diet is known to have an anti-epileptic effect; in fact it is currently used to treat drug resistant epilepsies. The efficacy of this diet is thought to be correlated to the elevation of blood ketone bodies. Because of problems with compliance to this diet, there is an interest in evaluating alternative pharmacological treatments that can have(More)
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a reversible electrophysiological phenomenon that is not associated with tissue damage under normal blood supply. The induction of CSD during ischemia causes an increase in tissue damage, while pre-conditioning with CSD decreases the damage induced by a subsequent episode of ischemia. The mechanisms underlying these(More)
Abnormal levels of amino acids have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and have also been investigated as a biomarker to monitor antipsychotic treatment, however results have been inconsistent. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the evidence in the literature of whether amino acid levels can be a biomarker and predict the treatment(More)
The impairment of brain functions during aging could be prevented by an increase in antioxidative defenses. In fact, dietary manipulation with antioxidants or with antioxidant-rich extracts from vegetables and fruit can ameliorate age-associated behavioral alterations. Moreover, dietary supplements of antioxidants can reverse the age-dependent impairment to(More)
Previous studies have shown that flanking distractors influence line bisection. In the present study, we examined if reaching the flanker after bisecting the line resulted in a variation of flanker interference on line bisection. Right- and left-handed participants were asked to bisect a horizontal line flanked by a dot (bisection task, B-task) or to bisect(More)
Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player(More)
Previous studies have shown that a flanking distractor produces a spatial bias during line bisection. In the present study, we investigated whether that bias depends on perceptual or motor components. Participants were asked to bisect a horizontal line, or to reach towards a dot, with or without vision of their hand. The line and the target could be flanked(More)
Copyright: ©2015 Monda M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Abstract Glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is dependent on the translocation of GLUT4 glucose(More)