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Three experiments were conducted in order to investigate the possible involvement of the reactive oxygen species in the nociception within the subnucleus caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vc). In the first experiment the extracellular level of hydrogen peroxide was evaluated by microdialysis in the Vc of two groups of six rats before and after a(More)
Peripheral amino acid changes have been reported in schizophrenia, but results are not consistent. We measured serum levels of different amino acids in 11 neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenic patients before and after clozapine treatment and in 11 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The schizophrenic patients exhibited significantly higher levels of serum(More)
The aim of this experiment was to investigate the role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic transmission in the nociception within the spinal trigeminal nucleus. The formalin test was used as an animal model of inflammatory pain. Two groups of six rats were used. The behavioural response to the labial injection of formaldehyde (50 microl of a 5%(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that there is an increase in oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of rats after repeated painful stimulation and that long-lasting pain increases the production of superoxide ion (O2 −), nitric oxide and peroxynitrite due to the activation of AMPA and NMDA receptors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the(More)
BACKGROUND Botulinum toxin is a powerful, long-acting inhibitor of muscular contractions in both voluntary and smooth muscle. It acts by blocking the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In the stomach, propulsive contractions of the antrum are necessary for the gastric contents to pass into the duodenum. AIMS To investigate whether(More)
Prevention of obesity and overweight is an important target for health promotion. Early prevention requires an intervention during childhood and adolescence. At these stages, the game could be an appropriate means to teach nutrition knowledge and to influence dietary behaviour. To this end, the authors developed Kalèdo, a new board-game. The aim of the(More)
Superoxide anions are highly reactive radicals overproduced in many pathological situations such as inflammation and ischemia. One of the major factors in the protection from superoxide anions is the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), which catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. This study presents a quantitative histochemical method(More)
Abnormal levels of amino acids have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and have also been investigated as a biomarker to monitor antipsychotic treatment, however results have been inconsistent. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the evidence in the literature of whether amino acid levels can be a biomarker and predict the treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Recent research attempting to develop novel medications has turned to glutamatergic signaling pathways to find effective treatments for symptom clusters of schizophrenia. This meta-analysis was undertaken to clarify whether a difference in peripheral glutamate levels exists between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHODS The(More)
The ketogenic diet is known to have an anti-epileptic effect; in fact it is currently used to treat drug resistant epilepsies. The efficacy of this diet is thought to be correlated to the elevation of blood ketone bodies. Because of problems with compliance to this diet, there is an interest in evaluating alternative pharmacological treatments that can have(More)