Andrea Vacchi

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Antiparticles account for a small fraction of cosmic rays and are known to be produced in interactions between cosmic-ray nuclei and atoms in the interstellar medium, which is referred to as a 'secondary source'. Positrons might also originate in objects such as pulsars and microquasars or through dark matter annihilation, which would be 'primary sources'.(More)
Protons and helium nuclei are the most abundant components of the cosmic radiation. Precise measurements of their fluxes are needed to understand the acceleration and subsequent propagation of cosmic rays in our Galaxy. We report precision measurements of the proton and helium spectra in the rigidity range 1 gigavolt to 1.2 teravolts performed by the(More)
The satellite-borne experiment PAMELA has been used to make a new measurement of the cosmic-ray antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio which extends previously published measurements down to 60 MeV and up to 180 GeV in kinetic energy. During 850 days of data acquisition approximately 1500 antiprotons were observed. The measurements are(More)
Phase contrast x-ray imaging is a powerful technique for the detection of low-contrast details in weakly absorbing objects. This method is of possible relevance in the field of diagnostic radiology. In fact, imaging low-contrast details within soft tissue does not give satisfactory results in conventional x-ray absorption radiology, mammography being a(More)
The authors evaluated the effect on mammographic examinations of the use of synchrotron radiation to detect phase-perturbation effects, which are higher than absorption effects for soft tissue in the energy range of 15-25 keV. Detection of phase-perturbation effects was possible because of the high degree of coherence of synchrotron radiation sources.(More)
A new measurement of the cosmic-ray antiproton-to-proton flux ratio between 1 and 100 GeV is presented. The results were obtained with the PAMELA experiment, which was launched into low-Earth orbit on-board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. During 500 days of data collection a total of about 1000 antiprotons have been identified, including 100(More)
A linear-array, silicon pixel detector, capable of counting single photons, was applied to mammography by using a synchrotron radiation beam. Images were obtained of both a mammographic phantom and a breast-tissue sample. The phantom image was acquired with a mean glandular dose of 0.32 mGy. This detector combined with a synchrotron radiation beam allows(More)
The phenomenon of light flashes (LF) in eyes for people in space has been investigated onboard Mir. Data on particles hitting the eye have been collected with the SilEye detectors, and correlated with human observations. It is found that a nucleus in the radiation environment of Mir has roughly a 1% probability to cause an LF, whereas the proton probability(More)
Cosmic ray measurements performed with the instrument SilEye-2 on Mir space station are presented. SilEye-2 is a silicon detector telescope for the study of the causes of Light Flashes perception by astronauts. As a standalone device, it monitors in the short and long term the radiation composition inside Mir. The cosmic ray detector consists of an array of(More)