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CONTEXT In June 2006, the Food and Drug Administration licensed the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) recombinant vaccine (qHPV) in the United States for use in females aged 9 to 26 years; the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices then recommended qHPV for routine vaccination of girls aged 11 to 12 years. OBJECTIVE To(More)
It is well established that mast cells (MCs) occur within the CNS of many species. Furthermore, their numbers can increase rapidly in adults in response to altered physiological conditions. In this study we found that early postpartum rats had significantly more mast cells in the thalamus than virgin controls. Evidence from semithin sections from these(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to characterize reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) in pregnant women who received seasonal influenza vaccines to assess for potential vaccine safety concerns. STUDY DESIGN We searched VAERS for reports of adverse events (AEs) in pregnant women who received trivalent inactivated influenza(More)
Mast cells are reported to differ from other cells of the hematopoietic lineage in that as mature cells, they retain the c-kit receptor, and are thus capable of responding to the stem cell factor (SCF) ligand. SCF is important for development and survival of mast cells. In this study, c-kit expression was examined immunocytochemically in the brains of mice,(More)
The public health community faces increasing demands for improving vaccine safety while simultaneously increasing the number of vaccines available to prevent infectious diseases. The passage of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendment Act of 2007 formalized the concept of life-cycle management of the risks and benefits of vaccines, from early(More)
Vaccines are profoundly important to global health in preventing infectious diseases. Reported adverse events following vaccination are diverse, rare and require thorough investigation and evaluation [1]. Autoimmune diseases (AD) have been reported after some vaccinations. Because autoimmune diseases are rare and have variable and prolonged onset times, it(More)
Current strategies to address global inequities in access to life-saving vaccines use averaged national income data to determine eligibility. While largely successful in the lowest income countries, we argue that this approach could lead to significant inefficiencies from the standpoint of justice if applied to middle-income countries, where income(More)
In vaccine safety monitoring, the evaluation of possible autoimmune events is challenging. Developing grouping systems based on pathophysiology, instead of organ systems, may enhance our ability to identify or verify associations between vaccines and adverse immunologically mediated events in clinical trials and post-licensure surveillance. Emerging data(More)