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Closely related to studying the function of a protein is the analysis of its three-dimensional structure and the identification of interaction sites with its binding partners. An alternative approach to the high-resolution methods for three-dimensional protein structure analysis, such as X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy, consists of covalently(More)
Calmodulin serves as a calcium-dependent regulator in many metabolic pathways and is known to bind with high affinity to various target proteins and peptides. One such target is the small peptide melittin, the principal component of honeybee venom. The calmodulin-melittin system was used as a model system to gain further insight into target recognition of(More)
Calmodulin (CaM), by mediating the stimulation of the activity of two adenylyl cyclases (ACs), plays a key role in integrating the cAMP and Ca(2+) signaling systems. These ACs, AC1 and AC8, by decoding discrete Ca(2+) signals can contribute to fine-tuning intracellular cAMP dynamics, particularly in neurons where they predominate. CaM comprises an α-helical(More)
Munc13 proteins are essential regulators of synaptic vesicle priming and play a key role in adaptive synaptic plasticity phenomena. We recently identified and characterized the Ca(2+)-dependent interaction of Munc13 and calmodulin (CaM) as the molecular mechanism linking changes in residual Ca(2+) concentrations to presynaptic vesicle priming and short-term(More)
Munc13s are presynaptic proteins that mediate synaptic vesicle priming and thereby control the size of the readily releasable pool of vesicles. During high synaptic activity, Munc13-1 and its closely related homolog, ubMunc13-2, bind Ca(2+)/calmodulin, resulting in enhanced priming activity and in changes of short-term synaptic plasticity characteristics.(More)
BACKGROUND Escherichia coli synthesizes three membrane-bound molybdenum- and selenocysteine-containing formate dehydrogenases, as well as up to four membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenases. Two of the formate dehydrogenases (Fdh-N and Fdh-O) and two of the hydrogenases (Hyd-1 and Hyd-2) have their respective catalytic subunits located in the periplasm and these(More)
Total DNA methylation rates are well known to vary widely between different metazoans. The phylogenetic distribution of this variation, however, has not been investigated systematically. We combine here publicly available data on methylcytosine content with the analysis of nucleotide compositions of genomes and transcriptomes of 78 metazoan species to trace(More)
Cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometry can be used as a tool for structural modeling of protein complexes and multidomain proteins. Although cross-links represent only weak structural constraints, the combination of a limited set of experimental cross-links with molecular docking/modeling is often sufficient to determine the structure of a(More)
VP1 is the major coat protein of murine polyomavirus and forms virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro. VLPs consist of 72 pentameric VP1 subunits held together by a terminal clamp structure that is further stabilized by disulfide bonds and chelation of calcium ions. Yeast-derived VLPs (yVLPs) assemble intracellularly in vivo during recombinant protein(More)
The ubiquitous Ca(2+)-sensing protein calmodulin (CaM) fulfills its numerous signaling functions through a wide range of modular binding and activation mechanisms. By activating adenylyl cyclases (ACs) 1 and 8, Ca(2+) acting via calmodulin impacts on the signaling of the other major cellular second messenger cAMP. In possessing two CaM-binding domains, a(More)