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Several eye-field transcription factors (EFTFs) are expressed in the anterior region of the vertebrate neural plate and are essential for eye formation. The Xenopus EFTFs ET, Rx1, Pax6, Six3, Lhx2, tll and Optx2 are expressed in a dynamic, overlapping pattern in the presumptive eye field. Expression of an EFTF cocktail with Otx2 is sufficient to induce(More)
Sonic hedgehog is involved in eye field separation along the proximodistal axis. We show that Hh signalling continues to be important in defining aspects of the proximodistal axis as the optic vesicle and optic cup mature. We show that two other Hedgehog proteins, Banded hedgehog and Cephalic hedgehog, related to the mouse Indian hedgehog and Desert(More)
Photoreceptor and bipolar cells are molecularly related cell types in the vertebrate retina. XOtx5b is expressed in both photoreceptors and bipolars, while a closely related member of the same family of transcription factors, XOtx2, is expressed in bipolar cells only. Lipofection of retinal precursors with XOtx5b biases them toward photoreceptor fates(More)
Pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are the starting point from which to generate organ specific cell types. For example, converting pluripotent cells to retinal cells could provide an opportunity to treat retinal injuries and degenerations. In this study, we used an in vivo strategy to determine if(More)
Tremendous progress has been made in recent years to generate retinal cells from pluripotent cell sources. These advances provide hope for those suffering from blindness due to lost retinal cells. Understanding the intrinsic genetic network in model organisms, like fly and frog, has led to a better understanding of the extrinsic signaling pathways necessary(More)
Members of the LIM homeodomain (LIM-HD) family of proteins are double zinc-finger containing transcription factors with important functions in pattern formation and cell lineage determination. The LIM-HD family member Lhx2 is required for normal eye, liver, and central nervous system formation. Lhx2(-/-) mice lack eyes, and experiments in Xenopus predict(More)
Several retinal mRNAs encoding photoreceptor-specific proteins have been examined in congenic lines of mice carrying different allelic combinations at the rd and rds loci, to determine how mRNA expression is affected by the presence of both the rd and rds genes together or by the presence of one or two rd and rds alleles in the visual cells. Slot blots with(More)
cGMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) is a key component in visual phototransduction. Rod and cone photoreceptors each produce their unique cGMP-PDE subunits. The alpha' catalytic subunits are believed to be cone-specific. In this study, we report that transfection of the -132 to +139 sequence in the upstream region of the human alpha'-PDE gene fused to luciferase(More)
The genomic organization and nucleotide structure of the human cone photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase alpha'-subunit (alpha'-PDE) gene (PDEA2) as well as its chromosomal localization have been determined. This gene, which spans about 48 kb, consists of 22 exons and codes for an 858-amino-acid protein. The alpha'-PDE gene maps to human chromosome 10q24.(More)
A human cDNA (alpha-PDE) encoding the alpha' catalytic subunit of cone photoreceptor cGMP-phosphodiesterase has been isolated and characterized. The nucleotide sequence of 2980 bp contains an open reading frame encoding an 859-amino-acid (aa) protein with a calculated molecular mass of 99 kDa. Northern blot analysis of human retinal mRNA hybridized with the(More)