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Question of the study The reliable evaluation of polysomnographic recordings (PSG) is an essential precondition for good clinical practice in sleep medicine. Although the scoring rules of Rechtschaffen and Kales [86] are internationally well established, they leave some room for different interpretations, and this may contribute to the limited reliability(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, on polysomnographic sleep structure and subjective sleep quality. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study investigated the polysomnographic sleep structure and subjective sleep quality of 14 healthy male subjects given placebo,(More)
OBJECTIVE Ziprasidone, an atypical antipsychotic, is a potent dopamine (D(2)) and serotonin (5-HT(2A/C)) receptor blocker, has agonistic properties at the 5-HT(1A) receptor, and blocks serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. These transmitter systems are closely related to the regulation of sleep. METHOD The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled,(More)
BACKGROUND Narcolepsy is characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy. Histamine neurons are crucial to maintain wakefulness. We assessed the safety and efficacy of pitolisant (previously called BF2.649), a selective histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist that activates these neurons, in patients with narcolepsy. METHODS For this(More)
Cigarette smoking is a severe health burden being related to a number of chronic diseases. Frequently, smokers report about sleep problems. Sleep disturbance, in turn, has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathophysiology of several disorders related to smoking and may be relevant for the pathophysiology of nicotine dependence. Therefore, determining(More)
RATIONALE Increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an important aspect of the pathophysiology of major depression and schizophrenia. Despite the usefulness of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of depression and their positive influence on cognitive functioning possibly related to their impact on cortisol, little is known(More)
The present study investigated evening and nocturnal serum cortisol and melatonin concentrations in patients with primary insomnia to test if this clinical condition is accompanied by an increase of cortisol secretion and a simultaneous decrease of nocturnal melatonin production. Ten drug-free patients (4 males, 6 females) with primary insomnia (mean(More)
The effect of abrupt medication withdrawal (no-pill discontinuation) was investigated in 1507 insomniacs using the patients' self-ratings on visual analogue scales. Drug discontinuation followed a 28-day treatment period with either 7.5 mg zopiclone, 0.25 mg triazolam, 1.0 mg flunitrazepam, or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group,(More)
Elevated levels of central D2 dopamine receptors were found on postmortem examination in cases of human narcolepsy. In vivo investigations using positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPET) found no changes of D2 binding in the striatal structures. To investigate whether the elevated D2 receptors in postmortem(More)
Recent research provides evidence for an interaction between sleep and the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, but detailed studies in patients are still missing. We investigated hourly evening and nocturnal plasma cortisol secretion and sleep in seven male patients with severe chronic primary insomnia and age- and gender-matched(More)