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To investigate the biosynthetic basis for the mosaic expression of brush border enzymes in confluent Caco-2 cells, a human colon carcinoma cell line exhibiting characteristics of adult small intestinal enterocytes, we have obtained a series of clones differing markedly in their growth rates, amounts of transforming growth factor-alpha/epidermal growth(More)
We characterized the three-dimensional organization of microtubules in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2 by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Microtubules formed a dense network approximately 4-microns thick parallel to the cell surface in the apical pole and a loose network 1-micron thick in the basal pole. Between the apical and the basal(More)
Two biosynthetic pathways exist for delivery of membrane proteins to the apical surface of epithelial cells, direct transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and transcytosis from the basolateral membrane. Different epithelial cells vary in the expression of these mechanisms. Two extremes are MDCK cells, that use predominantly the direct route and(More)
Rat small intestinal epithelial cell lines have been established in vitro and subcultured serially for periods up to 6 mo. These cells have an epithelioid morphology, grow as monolayers of closely opposed polygonal cells, and during the logarithmic phase of growth have a population doubling time of 19--22 h. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of(More)
Two epithelial cell lines have been established from the duodenum (IEC-17) and the ileum (IEC-18) of outbred germfree Crl:CD(SD)GN rats. They have a very similar morphology and ultrastructure, a normal rat diploid karyotype, comparable growth rates, and a similar set of surface antigens as detected with monoclonal antibodies specific for intestinal(More)
The relationship between Golgi and cell surface membranes of intestinal cells was studied. These membranes were isolated from intestinal crypt cells and villus cells. The villus cell membranes consisted of microvillus membrane, a Golgi-rich fraction, and two membrane fractions interpreted as representing lateral-basal membranes. The villus cell microvillus(More)
It has been hypothesized that human mucosal glucoamylase (EC 3.2.1. 20 and 3.2.1.3) activity serves as an alternate pathway for starch digestion when luminal alpha-amylase activity is reduced because of immaturity or malnutrition and that maltase-glucoamylase plays a unique role in the digestion of malted dietary oligosaccharides used in food manufacturing.(More)
The detailed mechanistic aspects for the final starch digestion process leading to effective alpha-glucogenesis by the 2 mucosal alpha-glucosidases, human sucrase-isomaltase complex (SI) and human maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), are poorly understood. This is due to the structural complexity and vast variety of starches and their intermediate digestion(More)
The distribution of the major keratin mRNAs expressed during terminal differentiation and fetal development of the rat intestinal epithelium has been examined by in situ hybridization. We have obtained and characterized a partial cDNA clone encoding human keratin 20 whose sequence spans from the coil la region through the 3' poly(A) tail. Sequence data and(More)