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The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphology of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS). Eight embalmed cadavers were analyzed: one side of the face was macroscopically dissected; on the other side, full-thickness samples of the parotid, zygomatic, nasolabial fold and buccal regions were taken. In all specimens, a laminar connective(More)
Spexin is a highly conserved peptide which was recently identified through the bioinformatics approach. Immunohistochemical analysis of its expression has not yet been performed. Thus, in this study, we examined spexin location in a wide range of rat organs by both RT-PCR and IHC. RT-PCR identified spexin mRNA in all tissues examined. Spexin immunoreaction(More)
Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors, i.e. rolipram, are being extensively investigated as therapeutic agents in several diseases. Emesis is one of the most common side effects of PDE4 inhibitors. Given the fact that the area postrema is considered the chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting, the present study investigates the regional distribution and(More)
Volumetry of basal ganglia (BG) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a sensitive marker in differential diagnosis of BG disorders. The non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces are mathematical representations of three-dimensional structures which have recently been applied in volumetric studies. In this study, a volumetric evaluation of(More)
This paper examines the main characteristics of the human fascial system, considered in its three-dimensional continuity. To better understand the anatomy of the human fascial system, a simple diagram of the subcutaneous tissue must be borne in mind. From the skin to the deepest plane, we find the superficial fascia, dividing the subcutaneous tissue into(More)
KISS1 and its receptor, KISS1R, have both been found to be expressed in central nervous system, but few data are present in the literature about their distribution in peripheral nervous structures. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, through immunohistochemistry, the expression and distribution of KISS1 and KISS1R in the rat and human(More)
Spexin (SPX, also called NPQ) is a recently identified, highly conserved peptide which is processed and secreted. We analysed the SPX gene and its protein product in the rat adrenal gland to ascertain whether SPX is involved in the regulation of corticosteroid secretion of and growth of adrenocortical cells. In adult rat adrenal glands the highest levels of(More)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution of apoptosis in the medullary nuclei of infants and adults who died of hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Apoptosis was studied by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) in brainstems from 22 adults (7 subjects who died of opiate intoxication, 15 who died of other(More)
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of apoptotic neurons in the nuclei of the brainstem. Apoptosis was studied by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay, in human brainstems taken at autopsy from 15 adults (age range: 25-58 years). The nuclei examined included the hypoglossal nucleus(More)
Central sleep apnoea (CSA) is a breathing disorder characterized by repetitive central apnoeas with hypoxia interrupted by hyperventilation phases. In the literature, there are reports of CSA caused by brainstem infarcts. We report two patients (38 and 53 years old) with longstanding history of central sleep apnoea who died during sleep. In both cases the(More)